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The Coronation of Henry I of England 




Rrctor and Vicar of Minting 
jg Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Lincoln 

Cambridge : 
at the University I 

The Coronation of Henry 




Rector and Vicar of Minting 
Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Lincoln 

Cambridge : 

at the University Press 


Camtmige : 



THE purpose of The Cambridge Handbooks oj 
Liturgical Study is to offer to students who 
are entering upon the study of Liturgies such help 
as may enable them to proceed with advantage to 
the use of the larger and more technical works upon 
the subject which are already at their service. 

The series will treat of the history and rationale 
of the several rites and ceremonies which have found 
a place in Christian worship, with some account 
of the ancient liturgical books in which they are 
contained. Attention will also be called to the 
importance which liturgical forms possess as expres 
sions of Christian conceptions and beliefs. 

Each volume will provide a list or lists of the 
books in which the study of its subject may be 
pursued, and will contain a table of Contents and 
an Index. 

The editors do not hold themselves responsible 
for the opinions expressed in the several volumes 
of the series. While offering suggestions on points 
of detail, they have left each writer to treat his 
subject in his own way, regard being had to the 
general plan and purpose of the series. 

H. B. S. 
J. H. S. 


VTTHILE it is hoped that this book may prove 
of service to those who wish to study the 
history and structure of the Coronation Rite, it will 
be evident that a subject so large can only be treated, 
in the space at my disposal, in outline. Those who 
wish for more detailed information must be referred 
to the texts themselves. 

May I also here point out that since the Rite 
was probably never used twice in identically the 
same form in any country, and since it was thus 
in a continually fluid state, the Recensions into 
which the rites of the different countries are here 
and generally divided, are to a certain extent 
arbitrary, and must be taken as marking periods 
at which the rites reached certain stages of develope- 

Both Dr Swete and Dr Srawley have by their 
criticisms added considerably to the accuracy of the 
book. To Dr Srawley in particular I am much 
indebted for his patience in the discussion of various 


doubtful points that arose, and also for the trouble 
he has taken with the proof during the passage of 
the book through the Press. I am indebted, too, to 
the Rev. Chr. Schmidt for going over my translation 
of the Scandinavian documents. I have to thank 
M. H. Omont for permission to reproduce the minia 
ture of Nicephorus Botoniates, and Mr H. Yates 
Thompson for like permission in the case of the 
picture of St Louis. All the photographs, except 
of this last named picture, were made by Mr Donald 
Macbeth. Lastly I must express my sense of 
obligation to the readers and printers of the Uni 
versity Press for the care with which they have 
printed the book. 

R. M. W. 
August 23, 1915. 





I. Early conceptions of Kingship, and religious 

rites in connection with a King s accession 1 

II. Ceremonies in connection with the Inaugura 

tion of a Roman Emperor in pre-Christian 
times. The Origin of the Christian 
Coronation Rite in the fifth century. The 
Byzantine Rite of the tenth century and 
its developements. The Coronation of a 
Russian Czar. The Abyssinian Rite . 7 

III. The Origin of the Rite in the West. A 

twofold source. The seventh -century Rite 
of the Consecration of a King in Spain, 
and the Imperial Rite of the Holy Roman 
Empire 32 

IV. The Western Imperial Rite of the Corona 

tion of an Emperor at Rome. The accounts 
of the Coronation of Charlemagne. The 
earliest forms and their later develope 
ments 37 

V. The Coronation of a King. The Anglo- 
Saxon Consecration. The Rite of the 
so-called Pontifical of Egbert, and the 
developement of the English Rite. . 56 



VI. The French Rite and its developements. 

The Coronation of Napoleon ... 91 

VII. The Roman Rite of the Coronation of a 

King and its developements . . . 109 

VIII. The Rite of Milan and its developements . 114 

IX. The German Rite 120 

The Hungarian Rite 126 

The early accounts of the Rite of the Con 
secration of a King in Visigothic Spain. 
The Rites of Aragon and Navarre . .128 

XII. Other countries. Protestant Rites. Scot 
land. Bohemia. The Prussian Rite of 
1701. Denmark. Sweden. Norway . 137 

XIII. The Papal Coronation 159 

XIV. The Inter-relation of the different Rites . 165 

XV. The Unction, the Vestments, and the 

Regalia 177 

XVI. The Significance of the Rite . . .188 
GENERAL INDEX ....... 200 


I. The Coronation of Henry I of 

England Frontispiece 

(Reproduced from B.M. Royal MS. 
15 . E . iv. Photograph by Donald 

II. The Emperor Nicephorus Boto- 

niates in his imperial robes . to face p. 25 
(MS. Coislin 79 fol. 2, bibl. nationale 
Paris. Reproduced from Omont, 
H., Fac-similes des miniatures des 
phis anciens MSS grecs de la 
bibliotheque nationale. Photo 
graph by Donald Macbeth.) 

III. The Emperor Charles Vin his Coro 

nation robes . . . . to face p. 55 
(Reproduced from F. Bock, Kleino- 
dien des heiligen romischen Reiches 
deutscher Nation. Photograph 
by Donald Macbeth.) 

IV. The Anointing of St Louis of France to face p. 99 
(Reproduced from H. Yates Thomp 
son, Book of Hours of Joan II, 

Queen of Navarre.) 




1. Constantinople. 

CODINUS COROPALATES. De officiu Constantinopoli- 
tanis. (Bonn, 1839.) 

aulae Byzantinae. (Bonn, 1829.) 

GOAR, J. Euchologion. (Paris, 1647.) 

THEOPHANES. Chronographia. (Bonn, 1839.) 

2. Russia. 

MALTZEW, A. Die heilige Kronung. In Bitt- Dank- 
und Weihe-Gottesdienste der orthodox-katholischen Kirche 
des Morgenlandes. (Berlin, 1897.) 

METALLINOS, E. Imperial and Royal Coronation. 
(London, 1902.) 

3. Abyssinia. 

LOBO, JERONYMO. Voyage Historiyue d Abissinie, Tra- 
duite du Portugais, continues et augmentee de plusieurs 
Dissertations, Lettres, et Memoir -es. Par M. Le Grand, 
Prieur de Neuville-les-Dames et de Prevessin, (Paris, 


TELLER, BALTHASAR. The Travels of the Jesuits in 
Ethiopia translated into English. (London, 1710.) 




DUCHESNE, L. Liber Pontificalia. 2 vols. (Paris, 

HITTORP, MELCHIOR. De divinis Catholicae Ecclesiae 
ojjlciis. Paris, 1610. 

MABILLON, J. Museum Italicum, 2 vols. (Paris, 
1687-9.) For Ordines Romani, see also Migne, P.L. 

MARTENE, E. De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus. (Antwerp, 

(The first edition of this work published in 1702 does 
not contain all the documents which are found in the 
editions of 1736 onwards.) 

PANVINIUS and BEUTHER. Inauguratio, Coronatio, 
Electioque aliquot Imperatorum, etc. (Hanover, 1612.) 

PERTZ, G. H. Monumenta Oermaniae Historica. (Han 
over, 1826.) 

Pontificate Romanum. (Venice, 1520.) 

Pontificate Romanum dementis VIII et Urbani 
PP. VIII auctoritate recognitum. (Louvain, n.d. Other 
edd., Paris, 1664, Rome, 1738-40.) 

WAITZ, G. Die Formeln der deutschen Konigs- und 
der romischen Kaiser- Kronung. (Gottingen, 1872.) 

(a) England. 

GREENWELL, W. The Pontifical of Egbert Archbishop 
of York. (Surtees Soc., vol. xxvu. 1853.) 

WICKHAM LEQG, J. Missale ad usum Ecclesiae West- 
monasteriensis, vols. II. and in. (H.B.S., 1893-6.) 

WICKHAM LEGO, J. Three Coronation Orders. (H.B.S., 

WICKHAM LEGG, J. The Order of the Coronation of 
King James I. (Russell Press, London, 1902.) 


WICKHAM LEGG, L. G. English Coronation Records. 
(Westminster, 1901.) 

WORDSWORTH, CHR. The Manner of the Coronation of 
King Charles I of England. (H.B.S., 1892.) 

The Form and Order of the Service that is to be performed 
and of the Ceremonies that are to be observed in the Coronation 
of Their Majesties King Edward VII and Queen Alexander 
in the A bbey Church of S. Peter, Westminster, on Thursday, 
the 26th day of June, 1902. (Cambridge, 1902.) 

The Form and Order of the Service that is to be performed 
and of the Ceremonies that are to be observed in the Corona 
tion of Their Majesties King George V and Queen Mary in 
the Abbey Church of S. Peter, Westminster, on Thursday, 
the 22nd day of June, 1911. (Oxford, 1911.) 

(6) France. 

MENARD, H. D. Gregorii Papae I. Liber Sacramen- 
torum. Paris, 1642. (Reprinted in Migne, P.L. LXXVIII.) 

DEWICK, E. S. The Coronation Book of Charles V of 
France. (H.B.S., 1899.) 

Francorum Regum Capitularia, in Migne, P.L. 


GODEFROY, T. Le Ceremonial Francois. (Paris, 

MART&NE, op. cit. 

MASSON, F. Le sacre et le couronnement de Napoleon. 
(Paris, 1908.) 

Proces- Verbal de la Ceremonie du Sacre et du Couronne 
ment de LL. MM. L Empereur Napoleon et L lmpe ratrice 
Josephine. (Paris, An xin. = 1805.) 

(c) Borne. 

HITTORP, op. cit. 

MART^NE, op. cit. 

MABILLON, op. cit. 

Pontificals Romanum. 


(d) Milan. 

MAGISTBETTI, M. Pontificale in usum cedes. Medio- 
lanensis necnon Ordines Ambrosiani. (Milan, 1897.) 
PERTZ, op. tit. 

(e) Germany. 
PERTZ, op. cit. 
MART&NE, op. cit. 

(/) Hungary. 

MARTENE, op. cit. 

PANVINIUS and BEUTHER, op. cit. 

(g) Spain. 

DE BLANCAS, ,T. Coronaciones. (Qarago9a, 1641.) 

CORITA, GERONYMO. Los cinco libros primeros de la 

segunda parte de los anales de la corona de Aragon. 

(Caragoga, MDCX.) 

FEROTIN, M. Liber ordinum. (Paris, 1904.) 
YANGUAS Y MIRANDA, J. M. Cronica de los Reyes 

de Navarra. (Pamplona, 1843.) 

(K) Papal. 

LECTOR, Lucius. Le Conclave. (Paris, 1894.) 
LECTOR, Lucius. ^Election papale. (Paris, 1896.) 
MABILLON, op. cit. 

GRISSELL, H. DE LA G. Sede vacante. (Oxford, 1903.) 
Sacrarum caerimoniarum sive rituum ecclesiasticorum 
S. Rom. Ecclesiae Libri tres. (Venetiis, MDLXXXII.) 

() Other Countries. 

A eta Bohemica. ([Prague], 1620.) 

Actus Coronationis seren. Dn. Frederici Com. Pal. Dom. Regem et Reginam 
Bohemiae. (Prague, 1619.) 

Allernaadigst approberet Ceremoniel ved Deres Ma- 
jestceter Kong Christian den Ottendes og Dronning Caroline 


Amalias forestaaende, hoie Kronings- og Salvings- Act 
paa Frederiksborg Slot, Sondagen den 28^ Juni, 1840. 
Hendes Majestcet Dronninges allerhoieste Fodselsdag. A. 
Seidelin. (Kjobenhavn, 1840.) 

BUTE, JOHN MARQUESS OF. Scottish Coronations. (Alex. 
Gardner, 1902.) 

COOPER, J. Four Scottish Coronations. (Aberdeen, 

Ceremoniel ved deres Majestceter Kong Haakon den 
Sy venders og Dronning Maud s Kroning i Trondhjem s 
Domkirke Aar 1906. Steen ske Bogtrykkeri, Kr. A., 

Kurtze Beschreibung wie Ihr. Konigl. Majest. zu 
Schweden Karolus XI: zu Upsahl ist gekronet warden. 
Aus dem Schwedischen verdeutschet. (1676.) 

Ordning vid Deras Majestdter Konung Carl den 
Femtondes och Droltning Wilhelmina Frederika Alexandra 
Anna Lovisas Kroning och Konungens Hyllning vid 
Riksdagen i Stockholm. 1860. 

WICKHAM LEGG, J. An Account of the Anointing of 
the First King of Prussia in 1701, in Arch. Journ. LVI. 
pp. 123 ff. 1899. 



BOCK, F. Die Kleinodien des heil. romischen Reiches 
deutscher Nation. (Leipzig, 1864.) 

BRIGHTMAN, F. E. The Coronation Vestments. In The 
Pilot, vol. vi. pp. 136, 137. 

WICKHAM LEGG, L. G., op. ciL 


BOUQUET, M. Recueil des historiens des Gaules. (Paris, 



BRIGHTMAN, F. E. Byzantine Imperial Coronations. 
In Journal of Theological Studies, n. 359 f. (Cited as 
J. Th. St.) 

DESDEVISES DU DEZEKT, G. Don Carlos d Aragon. 
(Paris, 1889.) 

DIEMAND, A. Das Ceremoniell der Kaiserkronungen 
von Otto I bis Friedrich II. (Munchen, 1894.) 

HEYLIN, P. Cyprianus Anglicus. (London, MDCLXVIII.) 

LECLERCQ, H. Dictionnaire d archeblogie et de liturgie 
chretienne. (Paris. In progress.) Cited as DACL, 

LIEBERMANN, F. Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen. (Halle, 

PRYNNE. Canterburies Doome. (London, 1646.) 

WILSON, H. A. The English Coronation Orders. 
J. Th. St. II. 481 ff. 



KINGSHIP is one of the most ancient institutions 
of civilisation. At the very dawn of history the king 
is not only already existent, but is regarded with a 
reverential awe that shews that the institution must 
have had its beginnings in very remote times. His 
functions are twofold, civil and religious ; not only is 
he set apart from those over whom he rules, but by 
virtue of his other function, that of mediator between 
God and his people, we find him invested as it were 
with a halo of quasi-divinity. And so in early times 
we find the king possessing certain priestly prero 
gatives. Pharaoh was not an ordinary man but the 
son of Horus, and almost as one of the Gods. The 
kings of the Semites were priest-kings. In Homer 
the king is fleW, he is set upon his throne by Zeus, 
he is invested with the divine sceptre as in the case 

i Od. iv. 691. 
W. C. R. 1 


of Agamemnon 1 , and stands in a very special relation 
to the Deity. In ancient Rome it was the same ; 
and when in Rome and Athens kingship was abolished, 
still it was necessary to have an ap^wv /foo-iAcv? or a 
Rex Sacrorum to perform the special priestly functions 
hitherto belonging to the king. 

In view then of the sacred character of the king 
it is only natural to expect to find some religious 
ceremonial accompanying his accession to his office, 
and although in the West there is little or no direct 
evidence of this, in the East there is found in very 
early times a solemn religious ceremony consecrating 
the king to his office. 

The first actual reference to the consecration of a 
king occurs in the Tel-el-Amarna correspondence. 
In one of the letters Ramman-Nirari a Syrian king 
writing to Pharaoh speaks of the consecration of his 
father and grandfather, and that by unction with oil *. 

In the Old Testament there are a number of 
instances of the consecration of a king by anointing 

1 //. n. 101. 

eo-Ttj <TKi\irTpov e^iav TO tnev "H</>aiaro /az;ue Teuton/. 
"H<ai<rTo /Jitv Stone Ail Kpovioovi dvaKTi, 
AvTap lipa Zeus SWKC StanTopw ApyeifyovriQ 
Ep/Jietas Se ai>aj~ SwKfv JTeXoTri TrXjjJ/Tnrai 
AvTap o avTe Tle\.o\]s SIOK ATpei iroi/uei>i XaiaV 
Afpfv* <5e Qvi)<TK<av e\tirev Tro\iiapi>t. Qve<r-rri, 
Av-rdp o av-re Oueo"r Ayafj.efj.vovi \elire (popiivai. 
Cf. 1. 205, and Soph. Phil., 137140. 
Te%va yap 

Te\vas f-repai trpoii^ei 

Kal yvioina, trap oru> TO OeTov 

Atos <jKi\iTTpov dvatraeTai. 

2 Wihckler, The Tel-el-Amarna letters, p. 99. 


with oil, a rite parallel to the consecration of a priest 
or prophet. In the parable of the trees of Lebanon 
in the Book of Judges (ix. 15), the consecration of a 
king by anointing with oil is regarded as the general 
and accepted custom. Accordingly we read (1 Sam. 
ix-xi) of the first Israelitish king Saul being solemnly 
anointed by the prophet Samuel on his election as 
king. In the account of the inauguration of Saul, if 
we may use the term, three distinct features are 

(1) He is anointed with oil, and so is endowed 
with special gifts, for the Spirit of the Lord comes 
upon him. 

(2) There is a Recognition or acceptance of 
him as king by the people. 

(3) King and people make a joint covenant 
with God. 

David was anointed at first privately by Samuel, 
and by this unction he was endowed with the Spirit 
of the Lord from that day forward (1 Sam. xvi. 13). 
But he was twice again anointed as king publicly, 
and in each case in connection with his recognition 
by the people, on the first occasion when he was 
made king by the men of Judah (2 Sam. ii. 4), and 
on the second when he was made king over all Israel 
(2 Sam. v. 3). Moreover on the second occasion we 
read of a covenant being made King David made 
a league with them in Hebron before the Lord : 
and they anointed David king over Israel. In the 
case of Solomon (1 Kings i. 38-40), we are given 
more information as to the ceremonial used. Solomon 



riding on the royal mule goes in procession to Gihon ; 
he is anointed from a horn of oil out of the tabernacle 
by Zadok the high-priest; trumpets are blown and 
the people acclaim him with the cry God save King 
Solomon. He is brought and enthroned on David s. 

In Israel and Syria we find kings consecrated in 
like manner by unction. Thus we read of Elijah 
being charged to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria 
and Jehu king over Israel (1 Kings xix. 15, 16). The 
somewhat informal manner in which Jehu was a- 
nointed by a son of the prophets (2 Kings ix. 1 ff.) 
may have been due to the special circumstances of 
the case, or it is possible that there was a more 
gradual development of the ceremonial in Israel than 
in orthodox Judah. 

The fullest account given in the Old Testament 
of a coronation is that of Jehoiada (2 Kings xi. 12 ff.). 
Here is the first actual mention of the crowning, and 
there are a number of separate ceremonial acts. 

(1) The crown is set on the king s head by the 

(2) The king is given the testimony/ for which 
we should probably read the regal bracelets 1 . 

(3) He is made king and anointed. 

(4) He is acclaimed by the people, God save 
the King. 

(5) A covenant is made not only between the 

1 Wellhausen s emendation mi?Nn the bracelet for 
the testimony is very tempting. If testimony stands, it pro 
bably refers to some document containing the laws and customs of 
the kingdom. 


Lord and the king and the people, but also between 
the king and the people. 

Here then we have investiture with crown and 
perhaps with other regal ornaments. A recognition 
is probably implied in the expression they made 
him king. He is anointed and acclaimed. The 
covenant made between king and people is, to use a 
later phraseology, the coronation oath. It was his 
refusal to make a satisfactory covenant with his people 
that was the occasion of trouble between Rehoboam 
and Israel. 

At a much later period Isaiah refers to Cyrus as 
* the Lord s anointed. The prophet s language may 
be merely metaphorical, but on the other hand may 
imply that the anointing of a king at his accession 
was a rite common to the whole East. In later times 
there was a ceremonial crowning of a Persian king, 
as we happen to know from Agathias story of unusual 
circumstances attendantupon the coronation of Sapor 1 . 

Reference has been made above to certain regal 
ornaments mentioned in the accounts of the coro 
nations of various Jewish kings. The crown and 
regal bracelets are mentioned among Saul s kingly 
ornaments (2 Sam. i. 10). To these may perhaps be 
added the shield (2 Sam. i. 21), and the spear 
(1 Sam. xviii. 10, xxvi. 7, 22) 2 . 

1 Agathias, Hist., rv. 25. 

2 In 1 Sam. xviii. 10, where the A.V. reads there was a javelin 
in Saul s hand, a javelin should be the spear, which seems to 
imply that the spear in question was a special weapon. The word 
used here JV3PI is the same as in 1 Sam. xxvi. 7, 22, is translated 
4 spear. 


Ezekiel (xxi. 26) mentions the crown and diadem 
in connection with Zedekiah as the special insignia 
of the king. There is also special reference made to 
royal robes distinctive of kingly rank (1 Kings xxii. 
10, 30), but there is no evidence as to the nature of 
these robes. 

If the book of Esther can be relied on, there was 
a definite royal apparel used by the Persian kings as 
well as a crown royal (Esth. vi. 8) ; and a crown 
royal is also mentioned in connection with the queen, 
in the case of both Vashti and Esther (i. 11, ii. 17). 
There can be little doubt that crown and royal vesture 
reach back to remotest antiquity. 



THE Christian rite of the sacring of kings does 
not derive its origin from the older Jewish rite, 
though doubtless during the process of its develope- 
ment it borrowed details from the older ceremony. 

The origin of the rite must be sought in Con 
stantinople, and from the Byzantine ritual the idea 
of the Western rite is ultimately derived. But what 
then is the origin of the Byzantiue rite itself? It 
is the Christian developement of the ceremonies 
connected with the inauguration of the Roman 
Emperors in pre-Christian times. Of these cere 
monies we have no very full or detailed account, 
but although we have no exact and complete record 
of the actual ritual used, yet certain historians tell 
us in somewhat general terms of what happened on 
the accession of various Emperors. For example, 
the circumstances of the election of Tacitus to the 
Empire in 275 were as follows 1 . 

i Vopiscus, Tacitiut, 39. 


The Senate was convoked and asked to elect an 
Emperor, and Tacitus the Princeps Senatus on rising 
to give his opinion was suddenly acclaimed Emperor 
by the whole Senate, with the acclamation Tacitus 
Augustus, the Gods preserve you. You are our 
choice, we make you Princeps, to you we commit 
the care of the republic and the world. Take up 
the Empire by the Senate s authority. The honour 
which you deserve is in keeping with your life, your 
rank, your character etc., and the acclamations 
conclude with the repetition of the formal words, 
Tacitus Augustus, the Gods preserve you. He 
was thereupon elected, and the Senate proceeded to 
the Campus Martius, where its choice is announced 
to the people in these words, You have here, 
Sanctissimi Milites et Sacratissimi Quirites, the 
prince whom the Senate has elected in pursuance 
of the vote of all the armies, I mean the most 
august Tacitus ; so that he who has hitherto helped 
the republic by his votes, will now help it by his 
commands and decrees. The people greet the an 
nouncement with the acclamation: Most fortunate 
Augustus Tacitus, the Gods preserve you, and the 
rest that it is customary to say. Lastly the Senate s 
choice is proclaimed to the army, and the customary 
Donative is given. 

Pertinax was suddenly and irregularly acclaimed 
by army and populace without waiting for the Senate 
to make an election. Thereupon he proceeded to 
the Senate, and after delivering an address to the 
senators he was acclaimed by all, and received from 


them all honour and reverence, and was sent to 
the temple of Jupiter and the other sanctuaries, and 
having celebrated the sacrifice for the Empire, he 
returned to the palace 1 . 

Thus we see that in theory the new Emperor was 
first elected by the Senate, and then accepted or 
recognised in the Campus Martius by the people and 
army with acclamations which followed a definite 
and fixed ritual, and finally the Donative originated 
by the Emperor Claudius, and followed by his 
successors, was bestowed. But in actual fact the 
election by the Senate tended to become more and 
more a very perfunctory affair, and the choice of an 
Emperor came more and more to fall into the hands 
of the armies. 

The Emperor had, however, some power in pro 
viding his successor. He could and often did 
nominate a colleague who would normally possess 
a right of succession. But while he was merely 
colleague in the Empire, though he was invested 
with some of the marks and functions of the Imperial 
dignity, he had no actual imperium. 

There were also certain definite imperial insignia, 
such as the purple cloak, once the mark of a general 
in the field ; the laurel wreath, which the Emperor 
habitually wore ; the purple-striped toga and tunic ; 
and the scarlet senatorial shoes. 

The ceremonies of the inauguration naturally 
tended in process of time to develope. The election 
by the Senate, as has been remarked, became more 

1 Herodian, Hist., n. 3. 


and more of a form, and new customs gradually came 
into being. A considerable developement is noticeable 
in the account of the inauguration of Julian, though 
the whole ceremony in his case was under the circum 
stances somewhat informal and makeshift. It is the 
army which elects him. In spite of his protests he 
is acclaimed as Emperor; he is then elevated on a 
shield ; and finally he is crowned, a torque serving 
temporarily to represent the diadem. Afterwards, 
we are told, he assumed a gorgeous diadem at 
Vienne 1 . The elevation on a shield, which hence 
forward always occurs in the inauguration ceremonies, 
appears for the first time at Julian s accession to the 
imperial throne. It was a custom followed among 
the Teutonic tribes 2 , and was doubtless introduced 
by the Teutonic soldiers who formed so important 
a part of the Roman armies at this time. The 
diadem, which is of oriental origin, was perhaps 
introduced by Aurelian. It seems to have been 
habitually used by Constantine, and there was a 
gradual advance during this period in the matter 
of ceremonial and the sumptuousness of the imperial 

There is no sign, for some time after the acceptance 
of Christianity as the religion of the Empire, of any 
Christian influence on the rites of inauguration. It 
is not until the time of the Emperor Leo I that we 
meet with the coronation rite in the religious sense 
of the term. In the year 457 the Emperor Leo I 

1 Amniianns Marcellinus, xx. 4. 17, and xxi. 1. 4. 

2 Tacitus, Hist., rv. 15. 


was formally crowned and invested as Emperor with 
religious rites. Constantine Porphyrogenitus 1 , to 
whom we owe so much of our knowledge of the court 
functions and ceremonial of the Byzantine period, 
describes the rite which took place at the accession 
of Leo. The new Emperor, accompanied by the high 
officials of the Empire, went down in state to the 
Hippodrome, in which was gathered together a vast 
concourse of people. Here he ascended a lofty 
tribunal in view of all the people and was greeted 
with acclamations. A mania-Ms (apparently a kind 
of fillet) is placed upon his head, and another in his 
hand, amid the cheers of the people. Then under 
the cover of a testudo, raised by the candidati, he is 
arrayed in the imperial vestments, and so shews 
himself to the people, with the diadefn on his head 
and the imperial shield and spear in his hands. He 
is thereupon greeted with the ritual formula, Mighty 
and victorious and august, prosperously, prosperously. 
Many years, Leo Augustus, thou skalt reign. God 
mil keep this realm, God will keep this Christian 
realm, and other such things. The Emperor then 
makes a speech to the people, and promises the 
customary Donative. 

Nicephorus, Theodore the Reader, and Theophanes, 
assert that Leo was elected by the Senate, and that 
the diadem was set upon his head by the Patriarch 
Anatolius 2 , but Constantine does not make any 

1 De caerim., i. 91. 

2 Nicephorus, H. E., xv. 15, Theodoras Lector, //. E., n. 66, 
Theophanes, Ch ronographia, i. 170 (ed. Bonn, 1839). 


reference to any act of coronation by the Patriarch, 
and does not mention him at all, except as being 
among the high officials who accompanied the 
Emperor to the Hippodrome. Evidently as yet the 
Patriarch took no very public or prominent part in 
the ceremonial. 

We are told more, however, in connection with 
the inauguration of the Emperor Anastasius I in 
491 l . On the death of Zeno, the choice of his 
successor to the Empire was left in the hands of 
the Empress Ariadne. The Senate summoned the 
Patriarch to exhort her to make a worthy choice, 
and she chose as Emperor Anastasius the Silentiary. 
After the funeral of Zeno, Anastasius takes up his 
position before the portico of the great Triclinium 
and the magistrates and Senate require of him an oath 
that he will retain no private grudge against anyone, 
and that he will rule the Empire well and justly. 
The Patriarch Euthymius then demands an oath in 
writing 2 that he will make no change in the Faith or 
Church, and that he shall sign the Chalcedonian 
dogmas. Anastasius then proceeds to the Hippodrome 
and enters the triclinium from which the Emperor 
is wont at race times to receive the adoration of 
the Senate. He is clothed in the golden-striped 
Dibetesion (a tunic reaching to the knees), girdle, 
greaves, and royal buskins, his head being uncovered. 
The military standards are in the meanwhile lying 

1 Constant. Porpbyr., de caerimoniis, i. 92. These accounts 
of early inaugurations are probably taken by Constantine from 
contemporary accounts. 

2 Theopbanes, Chron., i. p. 210. 


on the ground, to signify, apparently, the vacancy of 
the throne. The people acclaim him, he is raised on 
a shield, and a campiductor places a torque about 
his head. This last is perhaps a perpetuation of the 
makeshift coronation of Julian with a military torque. 
The standards are then lifted up, and people and 
soldiery together acclaim the Emperor. The Emperor 
re-enters the triclinium, and is invested with the 
regalia. The Patriarch says a prayer which is 
followed by the Kyrie eleeson, and then the Patriarch 
invests the Emperor with the imperial chlarnys (the 
purple robe), and sets a gorgeous crown upon his 
head. After this the Emperor goes to the Kathisma 
and shews himself to the people, who greet him with 
the cry Auguste, Se/Sacrre. The Emperor then 
proceeds to address the people in a special ritual 
formulary, a book containing which is put into his 
hand for the purpose. 

EMPEROR. It is manifest that human power de 
pends on the will of the supreme Glory. 

PEOPLE. Abundance to the world ! As thou hast 
lived, so rule. Incorrupt rulers for the world ! and 
so on. 

EMP. Since the most serene Augusta Ariadne 
with the assent of the illustrious nobles and by the 
election of the glorious Senate and mighty armies, 
and the consent of the sacred people, have advanced 
me, though unwilling and hesitating, that I should 
assume the care of the Empire of the Romans, agree 
ably to the clemency of the Divine Trinity 

PEO. Kyrie eleeson. Son of God, have mercy upon 


him. Anastasie Auguste, tti vincas ! God will keep 
the pious Emperor. God gave thee, God will keep 
thee ! and so on. 

EMP. / am not ignorant hoiv great a weight is 
laid upon me for the common safety of all. 

PEG. Worthy of the Empire ! Worthy of the 
Trinity! Worthy of the City. Out with the in 
formers. (This last is doubtless an unauthorised 

EMP. / pray Almighty God that as ye hvped me 
to be, in this common choice of yours, so ye may find 
me to be in the conduct of affairs. 

PEO. He in whom thou believest will save th#e. 
As thou hast lived, so reign. Piously hast thou lived, 
piously reign. Ariadne, thou conquerest ! Many be 
the years of the Augusta ! Restore the army, restore 
the forces. Have mercy on thy servants. As Marcian 
reigned, so do &>w...(and much more to the same 

EMP. Because of the happy festival of our Empire, 
I will bestow 5 solidi and a pound of silver on each 

PEO. God will keep the. Christian Emperor. 
These are the prayers of all. These are the prayers 
of the whole world. Keep, Lord, the pious Emperor. 
Holy Lord, raise up thy world. The fortune of the 
Romans conquers. Anastasius Augustus, thou con 
querest ! Ariadne Augusta, thou conquerest! God 
hath given you, God will kesp you. 

EMP. God be with you. 

The Emperor then proceeds to the church of 


St Sophia and lays aside his crown in the Mutatorium, 
and it is deposited in the sanctuary. He then offers 
his gifts, and returning to the Mutatorium reassumes 
his crown, and thence returns to the palace. 

In the account which he gives of the inauguration 
of Leo the Younger in 474 1 , Constantino illustrates 
the ceremonies observed at the inauguration of one 
associated in the Empire during his father s lifetime. 

The reigning Emperor, accompanied by the 
Senate and by the Patriarch Acacius, proceeds to 
the Hippodrome, where the populace and soldiery 
are already assembled. The Emperor standing 
before his throne begins to address the troops, who 
pray him to be seated. Saluting the people the 
Emperor seats himself, and the concourse greeting 
him with cries of Augustus, beseeches him to crown 
the new Emperor. The Magister and Patricians 
then lead forward the Caesar, and place him on 
the Emperor s left hand. The Patriarch recites a 
prayer to which all answer Amen. The Praepositus 
then hands a crown to the Emperor, who himself 
sets it on the Caesar s head, the people shouting 
Prosperously, prosperously, prosperously. The 
Emperor seats himself, while the new Emperor 
addresses the people who greet him with shouts of 
Augustus. The Eparch of the city and the Senate 
come forward and present the new Emperor, according 
to custom, with a modiolon, or crown of gold. Finally 
the Emperor addresses the soldiery, and promises the 
usual Donative. 

1 De caenm. i. 94, pp. 431 ff. 


In these descriptions we still find a reminiscence 
of the old election by the Senate, ratified by the 
soldiery and people. The military assent is signified 
by the raising aloft on the shield, and by the 
imposition of the military torque, which was retained 
as late as the time of Justin II. Leo I also received 
a second torque in his right hand, which may perhaps 
be identified with the second golden crown given to 
Leo II. The meaning of this second crown is not 
clear, but Mr Brightman 1 has suggested that it may 
represent authority to crown consorts in the Empire. 
The acclamations evidently follow a fixed ritual, and 
the imperial speech is a written document. 

We are told in these accounts of inaugurations some 
thing of the imperial insignia. The imperial tunic 

was of white, and when girded with the belt reached 
to the knees. The belt (o>vdpiov) was a cincture of gold 
jewelled. The gaiters (rov^ia) were purple hose. The 
buskins (xa/xTrayia) were of crimson, with gold embroideries 
and rosettes. The purple paludamentum reached to the 
ankles, was apparelled with gold, and was fastened on the 
right shoulder with a jewelled morse. The diadem was 
a broad gold jewelled circlet with pendants over the ears. 

It is to be noticed that the inauguration of an 
Emperor took place at first in the Hippodrome. It is 
not until the days of Phokas (602) that we find the 
ceremony being performed in a church. The Emperor 
Phokas was crowned by the Patriarch Cyriacus in 
St John in the Hebdomon ; Heraclius (610) by the 
Patriarch in St Philip in the Palace ; Heraclius II in 

i J. Th. St., n. p. 375. 


St Stephen in Daphne. The Empress, unless crowned 
with her consort or father, was not crowned in 
church, and if crowned at all, the ceremony was of a 
private and domestic nature and took place in the 
palace, the Emperor himself setting the diadem upon 
the head of the Empress. 

We have not much information as to the develope- 
ment of the rite during the seventh and eighth 
centuries. The following description is given by 
Theophanes of the coronation of Constantino VI by 
his father Leo IV in 780 1 . 

On Good Friday an oath of allegiance was taken 
to the new Emperor by all classes in writing. On 
the Saturday the imperial procession went down to 
St Sophia. There the Emperor, according to custom, 
arrayed himself in the imperial vestments, and 
accompanied by his son and the Patriarch ascended 
into the Ambo, the written oaths of allegiance being 
deposited on the Holy Table. The Emperor informed 
the people that he had acceded to their request, and 
had associated his son with himself in the Empire. 
Lo, ye receive him from the Church and from the 
hand of Christ. The people respond, Answer us, 
Son of God ; for from thy hand we receive the Lord 
Constantine as Emperor, to guard him and to die for 
him. On Easter Day the Emperor proceeds to the 
Hippodrome, where an antiminsion (a portable altar) 
having been set up, in the sight of all the people the 
Patriarch recites a prayer, and the Emperor sets the 

1 Theoph., CTironograpk., i. 695 f. 
W. C. R. 2 


crown on the head of his son. Thereupon the pro 
cession returns to the Great Church. 

In the tenth century we have from the pen of 
Constantino Porphyrogenitus 1 a full description of 
the ceremonial of the coronation of an Emperor, 
except for the actual prayers used. These however 
can be found elsewhere, for there are extant two 
patriarchal Euchologia belonging to this same period, 
one of the end of the eighth century, the famous 
Barberini uncial codex, and the other the Grotta 
Ferrata codex of the twelfth century 2 . These both 
contain the rite, and it is noticeable that it is the 
same in both books, except for the fact that the 
second includes the coronation of an Empress. The 
rite therefore had remained unchanged from at least 
the end of the eighth century until the twelfth. 

The description given by Constantino is as follows. 

The Emperor proceeds to the church of St Sophia 
and enters the Horologion, and the veil being raised, 
passes into the Metatorion, where he vests himself with 
the Dibetesion and the Tzitzakion (a mantle, probably 
flowered), and over them the Sagion (a light cloak). 
Entering the church with the Patriarch he lights 
tapers at the silver gates between the narthex and 
the nave, and passes down the nave until he comes 
to the platform before the sanctuary, which is called 
the Soleas. Here before the Holy Doors leading 
through the Eikonostasis he prays and lights more 

1 De caerimoniis, i. 38. 

2 Goar, Enchologion (1647), pp. 924 ff. The text given is that of 
the Grotta Ferrata codex, showing the variations between it and 
Ihe Barberini text. 


candles. The Emperor and the Patriarch then go 
up into the Ambo, where the Chlamys or imperial 
robe, and the Stemina or crown, have already been 
set out on a table. The Patriarch then says the 
Prayer over the Chlamys, and the chamberlains 
put it on the Emperor. The Patriarch next says 
the Prayer over the Crown, and at the end of it 
takes the crown and sets it on the Emperor s head, 
and the people cry Holy, holy, holy, Glmy be to God 
on high and on earth peace, three times ; and then 
acclaim him, Many be the years of N., the great 
Emperor and Augustus. 

If it is the son of a reigning Emperor who is 
being crowned as an associate Emperor, the Patriarch 
gives the crown into the hands of the Emperor, who 
himself sets it on his son s head, the people crying, 
He is worthy, and the standards are dipped in 

After the Coronation the Laudes follow. 

CANTORS. Glory be to God on high, and on earth 
peace. The people likewise thrice. 

CANT. Goodwill among Christian men. The 
people likewise thrice. 

CANT. God has had mercy on his people. The 
people likewise thrice. 

CANT. This is the great day of the Lord. The 
people likewise thrice. 

CANT. This is the day of the life of the Romans. 
The people likewise thrice. 

CANT. This is the joy and glory of the world. 
The people likewise. 



CANT. On which the crown of the kingdom 
The people likewise. 

CANT. ...has worthily been set upon thy head. 
The people likewise thrice. 

CANT. Glory be to God the Lord of all. The 
people likewise. 

CANT. Glory be to God who hath crowned thy 
head. The people likewise. 

CANT. Glory be to God who declared thee (TO> 
dfaSei^avrt ere) Emperor. The people likewise. 

CANT. Glory be to God who hath thus glorified 
thee. The people likewise. 

CANT. Glory be to God who hath thus approved 
thee. The people likewise. 

CANT. And He tvho hath crowned thee, N., with 
his own hand The people likewise. 

CANT. ...will preserve thee long time in the 
purple. The people likewise. 

CANT. With the consort Augustae and the Princes 
born in the purple. The people the same. 

CANT. Unto the glory and uplifting of the Romans. 
The people the same. 

CANT. May God hear your people. The people 

CANT. Many, many, many. 

R. Many years, for many years. 

CANT. Long life to you, NN., Emperors of the 

R. Long life to you. 

CANT. Long life to you, servants of the Lord. 

R. Long life to you. 


CANT. Long life to you, NN., Augustae of the 

R. Long life to you. 

CANT. Long life to you : prosperity to the sceptres. 

R. Long life to you. 

CANT. Long life to you, N., crowned of God. 

R. Long life to you. 

CANT. Long life to you, Lords, and to the 
Augustae, and to the Princes born in the purple. 

R. Long life to you. 

The cantors proceed ; But the Creator and Lord 
of all things, (the people repeat) who hath crowned 
you with his own hand, (the people repeat) will 
multiply your years with the Augustae and the 
Princes born in the purple, (the people repeat) unto 
the perfect stabiliment of the Romans. 

Both choirs then chant Many be the years of the 
Emperors, etc., and the Emperor descends, wearing 
the crown, into the Metatorion, and seated upon his 
throne, the nobles come and do homage, kissing his 
knees. After which the Praepositus says At your 
service, and they wish him Many and prosperous 

The Liturgy now proceeds, and the Emperor makes 
his Communion. 

The ceremonial at the coronation of an Empress 
was much the same as that observed in the case 
of the Emperor. The coronation act, however, was 
performed not by the Patriarch but by the Emperor 
himself. If the Emperor was married after his 

1 De caerimoniis, I. 39. 


accession, the whole ceremony of the crowning of his 
consort took place immediately after the wedding, 
and not publicly in the church of St Sophia, but as 
a private court function in the Augusteum. 

The Euchologia, as has been mentioned above, 
give the text of the prayers used, which Constantine 
only indicates. They are as follows 1 . 

As the Emperor stands with bowed head with 
the Patriarch in the Ambo a deacon says the Ectene 
or Litany. 

The Patriarch then says the prayer over the 
Chlamys, secretly: 

Lord our God, King of kings, and Lord of 
lords, who through Samuel the prophet didst choose 
thy servant David, and didst anoint him to be king 
over thy people Israel ; hear now the supplication 
of us though unworthy, and look forth from thy holy 
dwelling place, and vouchsafe to anoint with the oil 
of gladness thy faithful servant N., whom thou hast 
been pleased to establish as king over thy holy people 
which thou hast made thine own by the precious blood 
of thine Only-begotten Son. Clothe Mm with power 
from on high; set on his head a crown of precious 
stones ; bestow on him length of days ; set in his right 
hand a sceptre of salvation ; stablish him upon the 
throne of righteousness ; defend him with the panoply 
of thy Holy Spirit ; strengthen his arm ; subject to 
him all the barbarous nations ; sow in his heart the 
fear of Thee, and feeling for his subjects ; preserve 
him in the blameless faith ; make him manifest as the 

1 Goar, Eucholoyion (1647), pp. 924 ff. 


sure guardian of the doctrims of thy Holy Catholic 
Church ; that he may judge thy people in righteous- 
ness, and thy poor in judgement, (and) save the sons 
of those in want ; and may be an heir of thy heavenly 
kingdom. (He goes on aloud) For thine is the might, 
and thine is the kingdom and the power. A men. 

The Patriarch then hands the Chlamys with its 
fibula to the Vesti tores, who array the Emperor in it. 
(If however it is the son, or daughter, or the wife 
of an emperor who is to be crowned, the Patriarch 
hands the vestment to the Emperor, who himself 
puts it on the person to be crowned.) 

The Patriarch then says the Prayer over the 

PATRIARCH. Peace be to all. 

DEACON. Bow your heads. 

PATRIARCH. To Thee alone, King of mankind, 
has he to whom thou hast entrusted the earthly 
kingdom bowed his neck with us. And we pray 
Thee, Lord of all, keep him under thine own shadow ; 
strengthen his kingdom ; grant that he may do con 
tinually those things which are pleasing to Thee; 
make to arise in his days righteousness and abundance 
of peace ; that in his tranquillity ice may lead a 
tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and gravity. 
For Thou art the King of peace, and the Saviour 
of our souls and bodies, and to Thee we ascribe glory. 
A men. 

The Patriarch then takes the crown from the 
table, and sets it on the Emperor s head, saying : 

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. 


The Emperor is then communicated. 

Here however there is apparently a disagreement 
between the Euchologia and the account of Constan tine 
Porphyrogenitus. The Barberini Euchologion of the 
eighth century states that the Patriarch celebrating 
the liturgy of the Presanctified administers to him 
the lifegiving communion, and the Grotta Ferrata 
Euchologion of the twelfth century speaks of the 
communicating the Emperor with the presanctified 
Sacrament, while Constantine says nothing of the 
Emperor being communicated in the reserved Sacra 
ment, but implies that he was communicated in the 
ordinary course of the Liturgy. It has been suggested 
by Mr Brightman 1 that the apparent discrepancy 
may be explained by supposing that the ecclesiastical 
rubrics are drawn up on the assumption that the 
Coronation will not necessarily be a festival with 
a Mass, while the Court ceremonial assumes that it 
will be. He goes on to point out that in ordinary 
cases of accession the coronation was generally 
performed at once, festival or no festival : in the 
case of a consort, when the day could be chosen, 
it was generally a festival. 

The Greek rite in its final development is found 
in the writings attributed to Codinus Curopalates 2 
(c. 1400). 

The Emperor proceeds to the church of St Sophia, 
and there makes his profession of faith both in writing 
and orally, reciting the Nicene Creed and declaring 

1 J. Th. St., u. p. 383 and n. 2. 

2 De officiis Constantino2X>Iitanis, c. xvii. (Bonn, 1839). 

The Emperor Nicephorus Botoniates in his imperial robes 


his adhesion to the seven Oecumenical Councils, 
professing himself a servant and protector of the 
Church, and promising to rule with clemency and 
justice. Then he proceeds to the triclinium called 
the Thomaite 1 , and medals are scattered among the 
people, and he is raised aloft on a shield. He then 
proceeds once more to St Sophia, where screened by 
a wooden screen erected for the purpose he is clothed 
in the imperial vestments ; the Sakkos (the dibetesion 
or dalmatic), and the Diadema (girdle) 2 , which have 
already been blessed by bishops. The Liturgy is now 
begun, and before the Trisagion, at the Little 
Entrance, the Patriarch enters the Ambo and 
summons the Emperor. There in the Ambo the 
Patriarch recites the Prayers composed for the 
anointing of Emperors, part secretly and part aloud, 
and the Emperor having uncovered his head, the 
Patriarch anoints him in the form of a cross saving, 
He is holy, the people repeating the words thrice. 
The Patriarch then sets the crown on the Emperor s 
head saying, He is worthy, the people repeating 
this also thrice. Thereupon the Patriarch again 
recites prayers, doubtless the second prayer To 
Thee alone. If however the Emperor to be crowned 
is a consort, associated during his father s lifetime, 
the Patriarch gives the crown to the Emperor, who 
himself crowns his colleague. 

1 The Thomaite triclinium was a part of the imperial palace 
adjoining St Sophia. 

a It is to be noticed that some of the imperial insignia have 
changed their names. The <5iof(5ijjia was once equivalent to the 
ffrfftfjia ; it is now synonymous with the O>KJ. 


If the Empress is to be crowned, she takes up her 
position in front of the Soleas, and the Emperor 
receiving the already consecrated crown from the 
Patriarch, himself sets it on her head. 

The Emperor and Empress being now crowned, 
they go to their thrones, the Emperor holding in his 
hand the Cross-sceptre ; the Empress her Baion or 
wand, both remaining seated except at the Trisagion, 
Epistle, and Gospel. When the Cherubic Hymn is 
begun at the Great Entrance the chief deacons 
summon the Emperor to the entrance of the Prothesis 
and he is invested with the golden Mandyas (a vest 
ment something like a cope) over his Sakkos and 
Diadema, and so vested, holding in his right hand 
the Cross-sceptre and in his left a Narthex or wand , 
he leads the procession at the Great Entrance in 
virtue of his ecclesiastical rank as Deputatus or 
Verger. He goes up to the Patriarch and salutes him, 
and is then censed by the second deacon, who says, 
The Lord God remember the might of thy kingdom 
in his Kingdom, always, now and ever, and for ever 
and ever, all the clergy repeating the words. The 
Emperor greets the Patriarch, and putting off the 
mandyas returns to his throne, rising only at the 
Creed, the Lord s Prayer, and the Elevation. If he 
is not prepared to communicate he remains seated 
until the end of the Liturgy. If however he is 
prepared to communicate, he is escorted to the 
sanctuary by the deacons, and censes the altar 
and the Patriarch, and is censed by the Patriarch. 

1 Probably the badge of his office as Deputatus. 


Then committing his crown to the deacons he is 
communicated after the manner of a priest. When 
he has made his communion, he replaces his crown 
and returns to his throne. After the Liturgy is over, 
he receives the Antidoron, and is blessed by the 
Patriarch and by the bishops present, and kisses 
their hands. The choirs sing an anthem called the 
avaTtA.aTe, and the Emperor is acclaimed by the 
people, and so returns in procession to the palace. 

In this account the most important feature is the 
explicit mention of the unction. There is no definite 
allusion hitherto in any account to any anointing in 
the Eastern rite, until the time of the intruding 
emperor Baldwin I, who was crowned with a Latin 
rite in 1214. 

In 1453 Constantinople was taken by the Turks, 
and the Greek Empire came to an end. But the 
Greek coronation rite still survives, and is used in 
the Russian tongue at the coronation of the Czars of 
Russia 1 , who regard themselves as the successors of 
the Greek Caesars. 

The Russian Czar is crowned at Moscow in the 
Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspenski Sobor). The 
imperial procession is met at the church door by the 
Metropolitan, who blesses the Emperor and Empress 
with holy water and censes them. Entering the 
church they make their devotions and ascend to their 
thrones. The 101st Psalm is sung, after which the 

1 See Maltzew Die heilige Krouung in llitt- Dank- und Weifie- 
Gottesdienste der orthodox-katholischen Kirche dea Morgenlandts 
(Berlin 1897) pp. 1-60; E. Metallinos, Imperial and Uoyal 
Coronation (London 190 2). 


Emperor is interrogated as to his belief, and recites 
in a loud voice the Nicene Creed. Then is sung the 
hymn Heavenly King, Paraclete/ and after the 
Litany (Synapte) the hymn, Lord, save thy people 
is sung thrice, and the lections follow at once ; the 
Prophecy (Is. xlix. 13-19), the Epistle (Ro. xii. 1-7), 
and the Gospel (Matt. xxii. 15-22). The Emperor 
now assumes the purple robe, assisted by the 
Metropolitan who says, In the name of the Father, 
etc. The Emperor bares his head and the Metro 
politan making the sign of the cross over it and 
laying on his hand recites the prayer, Lord our 
God (cp. p. 22), and then the prayer of the Bowing 
of the head, To Thee alone (cp. p. 23). The 
Metropolitan now presents the Crown to the Emperor, 
who puts it on his head, the Metropolitan saying, 
In the name of the Father, etc., and then proceeding 
to explain the symbolical meaning of the crown. 
Next the Metropolitan gives the Sceptre into the 
Czar s right hand and the Orb into his left, saying, 
In the name of the Father, etc., and explaining the 
symbolical meaning of these ornaments. 

The Czar then seats himself on his throne and 
the Czarina is summoned. The Czar takes off his 
Crown and with it touches the brow of the Czarina, 
and then replaces it on his head. He then sets 
a smaller Crown on the Czarina s head, and she 
immediately assumes the purple robe and the Order 
of St Andrew. 

Thereupon the Archdeacon proclaims the titles of 
the Czar and Czarina, and the clergy and the assembled 


company do homage by making three obeisances to 
the Czar. 

The Czar then gives the Sceptre and Orb to the 
appointed officers, and kneeling down says a prayer 
for himself that he may worthily fulfil his high office, 
after which the Metropolitan says a prayer on his 
behalf. Te Deum is sung and the Liturgy proceeds. 

The Anointing takes place after the Communion 
hymn (KOO/WVIKOV). Two bishops summon the Czar, 
who takes his stand near the Royal Gates, the Czarina 
a little behind him, both in their purple robes, and 
there the Czar is anointed on the forehead, eyes, 
nostrils, mouth, ears, breast, and on both sides of his 
hands by the senior Metropolitan, who says : The 
seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost. The Czarina is 
then anointed with the same words, but on her fore 
head only. 

After he has been anointed, the Czar is conducted 
through the Royal Gates and receives the Holy 
Sacrament in both kinds separately, as if he were 
a priest, and then are given the Antidoron and wine 
with warm water, and water to wash his mouth and 
hands. The Czarina is communicated in the usual 
manner at the Royal Gates, and is given the Anti 
doron, wine, and water. 

The Father Confessor reads before the imperial 
pair, who have returned to their seats, the Thanks 
giving for Communion. After the dismissal the 
Archdeacon says the royal anthem, TroAvx/aoViov, the 
choir repeating thrice the last part, Many years/ 
and the clergy and laity then present congratulate 


their Majesties, bowing thrice towards them. The 
Metropolitan presents the cross for the Czar and 
Czarina to kiss, and the imperial procession leaves 
the church. 


A curious and unique variety of the Eastern rite 
survives to this day in Abyssinia 1 . 

The Negus enters Axum in state, accompanied by 
his principal officers. At a little distance from the 
church he alights, and his progress is barred by a 
cord held across the road by young girls. Thrice 
they ask him who he is, and at first he answers that 
he is King of Jerusalem, or King of Sion, and at the 
third interrogation he draws his sword and cuts the 
cord, the girls thereupon crying out that he verily is 
their king, the King of Sion. He is met at the 
entrance of the church (or sometimes apparently in a 
tent which is perhaps a moveable church) 2 by the 
Abuna and the clergy, and enters to the accompani 
ment of music. He is anointed by the Abuna with 
sweet oil, all the priests present singing psalms the 
meanwhile. He is next invested with a royal mantle. 
Finally a crown of gold and silver, in the shape of a 

1 Voyage historiqtie d Abisxinie du R. P. Jerome Lobo, traduite 
du Portugais, contimiee et augmentee de plusieurs dissertations, etc. 
par M. Le Grand (Paris MDCCXXVIII) p. 252 f. ; The travels of the 
Jesuits in Ethiopia, by F. Balthasar Tellez (London 1710), pp. 49f., 
184. The former of these writers has made use of the latter, and 
so the two authorities are not independent. 

2 I am using here the account given by Tellez of two different 


tiara and surmounted by a cross, is set on his head, 
and a naked sword denoting Justice is placed in his 
hand. The liturgy is then celebrated, and the Negus 
receives the Holy Sacrament. When he leaves the 
church the first chaplain ascends a lofty place and 
proclaims to the people that N. has been made to 
reign, and the assembly greet the new monarch with 
acclamations and good wishes, and come forward in 
order to kiss his hand. 

Unfortunately -none of the forms of this rite are 
accessible. The chief point of interest in it lies in 
the fact that the Negus is anointed. In view of the 
obscurity which shrouds the history of Abyssinia 
during the six centuries which followed the Arab 
conquest of Egypt it would be precarious to say 
whence this rite with the accompanying anointing 
was derived. It may have been an independent 
development in Abyssinia, derived from the accounts 
of the anointing of kings found in the Old Testament, 
more especially as many Judaising practices survive 
in Abyssinia. 



THE Eastern rite was one and one only. There 
was only one monarch in the East to be crowned, and 
therefore the rite was subject only to a natural and 
internal development. 

When, however, we turn to the history of the 
Western rite, we approach a very much more intricate 
matter, for the contemporary western documents 
give only general accounts and are not explicit as to 

In the old Empire the coronation of the Emperor 
took place always at Constantinople and never at 
Rome, and therefore the old rite was essentially 
Eastern. When, however, the Neo-Roman Western 
Empire came into existence, and Charlemagne was 
crowned at Rome on Christmas day 800, there came 
into existence a Western Imperial rite. There is 
no record of the forms used, nor do we even know 
for certain what took place on that occasion, but we 
may perhaps presume that the Pope intended to do 
what was proper on the occasion of the accession of 


an emperor, and followed the Constantinopolitan 
ritual in outline, while it seems probable that the 
actual prayers used were Roman compositions made 
for the occasion. Here, at any rate, in the coronation 
of Charlemagne we have the beginnings of the Roman 
Imperial rite. 

But if the coronation of Charlemagne marks the 
origin of the Western imperial rite, it does not mark 
the introduction into the West of the rite of the 
consecration of a king, for such a rite had already 
been in existence in Spain some two centuries before 
this time. Whether this Spanish rite, which appears 
to have been well established in the seventh century, 
was an independent religious developement of the 
ceremonies which seem to have been observed at the 
inauguration of a new chieftain among most of the 
northern peoples, or whether the idea of it was in 
any way borrowed from Constantinople, there is not 
sufficient evidence to show. 

The Spanish rite was, as has been said, well 
established in the seventh century. In the canons of 
the sixth council of Toledo in 638 a reference is made 
to the oath taken by a Spanish monarch. Julian 
Bishop of Toledo in his Historia Wambad gives a 
short description of the anointing of King Wamba, 
at which he himself was present in 672, and in his 
account speaks of the customs observed on such 
occasions. It is then abundantly clear that a 
consecration ceremony was observed at the accession 

i c. 4 (P. L. xcvi. 766). 
W. C. R. 3 


of the kings of Spain some two centuries before the 
rite of the coronation was introduced at Rome. 

But not only in Spain did such a rite exist before 
the introduction of the imperial rite at Rome. It is 
found in existence in the eighth century in France, 
and probably it was used there before this date. We 
read how the first of the Carolingian kings sought the 
official recognition of his dynasty from the Church, 
and that in response to his appeal Pope Zacharias, 
lest the order of Christendom should be disturbed, 
by his apostolic authority ordered Pippin to be 
created king and to be anointed with the unction of 
holy oil 1 . He was accordingly consecrated in 750 
by St Boniface, on which occasion we are told that 
he was elected king according to the custom of the 
Franks 2 ; and to make assurance doubly sure he was 
a second time consecrated by Pope Stephen himself, 
who came over the Alps for the purpose and con 
firmed Pippin as king with the holy unction, and 
with him anointed his two sons Carl and Carloman to 
the royal dignity 3 . 

For England, if we leave out of consideration the 
Pontifical of Egbert, which cannot be ascribed to 
Egbert with any confidence, and of which the date 
is uncertain, we have only scanty evidence of the 

1 Reginonis Ckron., s. a. 749. Pertz, M. G.Hist. Script., i. 556. 

2 Ibid. s. a. 753. Dom Cabrol, DA CL, Bretagne (grande-), 
col. 1 238, thinks that it was from England that the custom of unction 
passed into France, and that it was imported there by Boniface, 
himself an Englishman. But this is a very precarious theory in 
view of the scanty evidence for English coronations during this 
period. See pp. 58-60. 

8 Regin. Chron., a. a. 752. (Pertz, I.e.) 


existence of any coronation ceremony before the 
tenth century, though we read of two isolated instances 
in which, in Northumbria and in Mercia, under special 
circumstances, kings are said to have been con 
secrated during the eighth century 1 . 

There remains the fact, then, that in Spain in the 
seventh century it was the custom to consecrate the 
Visigothic kings with unction, and a similar practice 
appears in France during the eighth century in con 
nection with the new dynasty inaugurated by Pippin. 
For England the evidence is slight, though we read of 
kings being consecrated in two isolated instances. 
This evidence is earlier in date than the period at 
which the exigencies of the Roman Empire called an 
imperial rite into existence at Rome. Thus there 
were in the West two separate and distinct intro 
ductions of the consecration rite, the first into the 
Visigothic kingdom of Spain from which, in all 
probability, the Prankish and Anglo-Saxon rites 
were derived ; the second in Rome on the occasion 
of the renaissance of the Western Empire. About 
the end of the ninth century these two rites began to 
influence one another, and from the Roman rite of 
the coronation of an Emperor a Roman rite of the 
coronation of a King was produced. 

In the consideration of the different Western rites 
and their developements, perhaps the method most 
convenient to follow is, first to treat of the imperial 
rite, and then of the royal. Though this method 
has its disadvantages from the point of view of the 

1 Seep. 58 f. 



interaction of the two rites upon each other, yet on 
the whole it is the simplest and clearest way of 
treating the many varieties of rite that accumulated 
in process of time. 


There seems to be no evidence of the existence of 
any coronation rite among the Britons. Gildas is 
sometimes quoted as evidencing the existence of a 
British rite. He says as follows ; Kings were anointed, 
and not by God, but such as stood out more cruel 
than other men ; and soon they would be butchered, 
not in accordance with the investigation of the truth, 
for others more cruel were chosen in their place 1 . 
It is plain that this language is merely metaphorical. 

There is a passage occurring in Adamnan s life of 
St Columba which is more to the point 2 . It speaks 
of an ordination (ordinatio) of King Aidan by the 
saint. And there (i.e. in lona) Aidan coming to 
him in those same days he ordained (ordinavit} as 
king, as he had been bidden. And among the words 
of ordination he prophesied things to be of his sons 
and grandsons. And laying his hands upon his head, 
ordaining him, he blessed him. 

I do not think that this occurrence can be regarded 
in any sense of the word as a consecration of Aidan. 
It appears to be nothing more than a very solemn 
blessing. The word Ordinatio is curious, but it is 
probably referring to the laying on of the hand in 

1 Gildas, de excidio Britanniae, c. xix. 

2 Adamnan, Vit. S. Columbani, in. 5. 



THE Western coronation rite came into existence 
on the foundation of the Neo-Roman or Holy Roman 
Empire by Charlemagne. The rite by which he was 
crowned was evidently regarded as the equivalent to 
that used at Constantinople, for the contemporary 
accounts claim that the ceremony was carried out 
more antiquorum. 

The two earliest accounts of the coronation of 
Charlemagne agree closely but give only scanty 
details. The Chronicle of Moissac 1 describes the 
event thus. Now on the most holy day of the 
Nativity of the Lord, when the king arose from prayer 
at Mass before the tomb of the blessed apostle Peter, 
Leo the Pope with the counsel of all the bishops and 
priests and the Senate of the Franks and also of the 
Romans, set a golden crown on his head, in the 
presence also of the Roman people, who cried : " To 
Charles the Augustus crowned of God, great and 

l Chron. Moiss., B. a. 801 (for 800), Pertz, M. G. H, Script., i. 305. 


pacific Emperor of the Romans, life and victory." 
And after the Laudes had been chanted by the 
people, he was also adored by the Pope after the 
manner of the former princes. 

Very much the same is the account given by the 
Liber Pontificalis 1 . After these things, the day 
of the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ arriving, 
they were all again gathered together in the aforesaid 
basilica of the blessed Apostle Peter. And then the 
venerable and beneficent pontiff with his own hands 
crowned him with a most precious crown. Then all 
the faithful Romans, seeing the great care and love 
he had towards the holy Roman Church and its 
Vicar, unanimously with loud voice cried out, by the 
will of God and the blessed Peter, key-bearer of the 
kingdom of the heavens, "To Charles, the most 
pious Augustus crowned of God, great and pacific 
Emperor of the Romans, life and victory." Before 
the sacred tomb of the blessed Apostle Peter, in 
voking many saints 2 , thrice was it said; and he was 
constituted by all Emperor of the Romans. In the 
same place the most holy priest and pontiff anointed 

1 Duchesne, Lib. Pontificalis, 11. p. 7. 

2 Plures sanctos invocantes, i.e. the Laudes spoken of in the 
Chron. of Moissac. " Les Laudes sont une serie d acclamations 
dans lesquelles on iuvoque le Christ, les anges, et les saints pour la 
personne qui est 1 objet de la ceremonie." Duchesne, op. cit. n. 37, 
n. 33. The Laudes were not exclusively a feature of the coronation 
rite, but had a place in any public function of which any great 
personage was the centre. Laudes in very much the same form 
as usual here had been used on a previous occasion in honour of 
Charles as King of the Franks and Roman Patrician. See Dom 
Leclercq, DACL, Charlemagne, col. 786. An example of the 
Laudes will be found on p. 43. 


with holy oil Charles, his most noble son, as king, 
on that same day of the Nativity of our Lord Jesus 

The forms by which Charlemagne was crowned 
have not survived and we have only such short 
descriptions as these as to what took place, and a 
comparison in other cases of such descriptions with 
the rites actually used warns us how precarious 
it is to rely too much on the accounts even of 

In the two accounts given above it will be noticed 
that the Chronicle of Moissac seems to desire to keep 
up the old fiction of a constitutional election when it 
speaks of the coronation as taking place with the 
counsel of all the bishops and priests, and the 
Senate of the Franks and also of the Romans ; and 
also some sort of recognition by the people seems to 
be implied by the statement of the Liber Pontificalis 
that Charlemagne was constituted by all Emperor of 
the Romans. 

Einhard 1 , in his Life of Charles, expressly states 
that Charles had no idea beforehand of the intention 
of the Pope to crown him as Emperor, and that if he 
had known he would not have entered St Peter s 
on that eventful Christmas Day. But the words 
of the Chronicle of Moissac certainly imply that it 
was a prearranged thing, and if Charlemagne was 
really taken by surprise, it was probably the method 
of the coronation, at the hands of the Pope, which 

1 Einliard, Vita Caroli, c. xxvm. 


constituted the surprise. The occurrence of the 
Laudes need not present any difficulties to the view 
that the whole affair was unexpected, for as we have 
seen they were a familiar part of great public functions, 
and it is possible that the people were led on such 
occasions by official cantors, as we know was the 
practice at Constantinople. 

But the most important question connected with 
Charlemagne s coronation is, Was Charles anointed 1 ? 
There is no reference whatever to any anointing in 
the contemporary accounts of the Chronicle of Moissac 
and the Liber Pontificalis, nor yet in other almost 
contemporary matter such as the verses of the Poeta 
Saxo\ or the Chronicle of fiegino 2 . To this must be 
added the fact, inconclusive in itself, that there is no 
mention of any unction in the earliest extant Order 
of the Western imperial rite, that of the Gemunden 
Codex. On the other hand it is expressly stated by 
a contemporary eastern historian, Theophanes, that 
Charlemagne was anointed from head to foot 3 , and 
this statement is repeated by a later Greek writer of 
the twelfth century, Constantine Manasses, who adds, 
after the manner of the Jews 4 . 

If Charlemagne was not anointed but only crowned 

1 Poeta Saxo, de gestis Caroli. 

Post laudes igitur dictas et summus eundem 
Praesul adoravit, sicut mos debitus olim 
Principibus fuit antiquis. 

2 Begin. Ckron., s. a. 801, Leo Papa coronarn capiti iinposuit; 
et a cuncto Komanorum populo ter acclamation est, etc. (Pertz, 
I.e. 562.) 

8 Chronographia, i. p. 733. 

* Compend. Chron., P. 6. cxxvn. 389. 


by the Pope, then his coronation was strictly in ac 
cordance with the rite of Constantinople, for it is 
probable that there was no unction in the Eastern 
rite at this date, and thus the Western rite on its 
first introduction into the West would be similar in 
its outstanding feature to the Eastern rite. 

Of course the use of an unction at the consecration 
of a king had long been the central feature of the 
Western rite of the consecration of a King. But 
it must be borne in mind that Charlemagne was here 
being crowned as Roman Emperor, and that he had 
been anointed as King of the Franks on the occasion 
long ago of his father Pippin s anointing as Prankish 
King at the hands of Pope Stephen. Moreover it 
is added in the Liber Pontificalis that after the 
coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor, the Pope 
anointed his son Charles as King. Duchesne finds 
here the explanation of the statement of Theophanes 
that Charlemagne was anointed, and thinks that he 
has confused the two events which took place on the 
same occasion, the coronation of Charlemagne as 
Emperor, and the anointing of the younger Charles 
as King. 

It may be noticed, before we leave Charlemagne, 
that at the coronation of his grandson Louis the 
Pious in 813 as associate in the Empire, he himself 
crowned Louis with his own hands, thus following 
exactly the Eastern precedent in such a case. It 
may be that here we have the explanation of the 
alleged dissatisfaction and surprise of Charlemagne 
at his coronation on Christmas Day, 800. He may 


have intended to crown himself instead of being 
crowned by the Pope. 


The earliest Roman forms used at the coronation 
of an Emperor are found in the Gemunden Codex, 
and constitute Martene s Ordo III . This rite is very 
early, being of the ninth century, and it is possible 
that with some such forms as these Charlemagne 
himself was crowned. 

The rite begins with a short prayer for the 
Emperor : Exaudi Domine preces nostras etfamulum 
tuum ilium, etc., and then follows at once the prayer 
Prospice Omnipotens Deus serenis obtutibus hunc 
gloriosum famulum tuum ilium, etc., at the end 
of which the Emperor is crowned with a golden 
crown with the words, Per eum cui est honor et 
gloria per infinita saecula saeculorum. Amen. 
Next follows the Traditio Gladii, with the form 
Acdpe gladium per manus episcoporum licet indignas, 
vice tamen et auctoritate sanctorum Apostolorum 
comecratas tibi regaliter impositum, nostraeque bene- 
dictionis officio in defensione sanctae ecclesiae divinitus 
ordinatum ; et esto memor de quo Psalmista prophe- 
tavit dicens : Accingere gladio super femur tuum 
potentissime, ut in hoc per eundem vim aequitatis 

The Laudes 2 are then chanted. 

1 De antiquis rit. ecclesiae, n. p. 207. (Ed. 1763.) 

2 See p. 38, n. 2. 


CANTORS. Exaudi Christe. 

R. Domino nostro illi a Deo decreto summo 
Pontifici et universali Papae vitam. 

C. Exaudi Christe. 

R. Exaudi Christe. 

C. Salvator mundi. 

R. Tu ilium adiuva. 

C. Exaudi Christe. 

R. Domino nostro illi Augusta, a Deo coronato 
magno et pacifico imperatori vitam. 

C. Sancta Maria (thrice). 

R. Tu ilium adiuva. 

C. Exaudi Christe. 

R. Tuisque praecellentissimis filiis regibus 

C. Sancte Petre (thrice). 

R. Tu illos adiuva. 

C. Exaudi Christe. 

R. Exercitui francorum, Romanortim, et Teu- 
tonicorum vitam et victoriam. 

C. Sancte Theodore (thrice). 

R. Tu illos adiuva. 

C. Christus vincit, Christus regnat, Christus im- 
perat. (Twice, and R. the same.) 

C. Rex regum, Christus vincit, Christus regnat. 
(R. the same.) 

Here follow a series of acclamations. 

Rex noster Christus vincit, Christus regnat. Spes 
nostra Christus vincit. Gloria nostra Christus vincit. 
Misericordia nostra Christus vincit. Auxilium nos 
trum Christus vincit. Fortitudo nostra Christus 


vincit. Victoria nostra Christus vincit. Liberatio 
et redemptio nostra Christus vincit. Victoria nostra 
Christus vincit. A rma nostra Christus vincit. Murus 
noster inexpugnabilis Christus vincit. Defensio nostra 
et exaltatio Christus vincit. Lux, via, et vita nostra 
Christus vincit. Ipsi soli imperium, gloria, et potestas 
per immortalia saecula, Amen. Ipsi soli virtus, 
fortitudo, et victoria per omnia saecula saeculorum, 
Amen. Ipsi soli honor, laus, et iubilatio per inftnita 
saecula saeculorum, Amen. 

In conjunction with this rite Martene gives 
another very close to it but differing in some 
respects. The form at the crowning is different, 
Accipe coronam a Domino Deo tibi praedestinatam. 
Habeas, teneas, possideas, ac filiis tuis post te in 
futurum ad honorem, Deo auxiliante, derelinquas. 
Then follows at once the prayer Deus Pater aeternae 
gloriae. The Collect is given of the Mass, Deus 
regnorum. It is to be noted that the earliest 
Milanese rite 1 of the coronation of a king, of the 
ninth century, is almost identical with this rite of 
the Gemunden Codex. 


What may be regarded as a second recension of 
the Roman rite is the Order of the Coronation of an 
Emperor given in Hittorp s Ordo Roman us 2 . This 

1 See below, p. 114. 

2 Melchior Hittorp, De divinis cath. eccles. ojjiciis (Paris 1610), 
p. 153. Cp. the .Ordo I of A. Diemand, Das Ceremoniell der 
Kaiserkrfinungen von Otto I bis Friedrich II, pp. 124, 125. Almost 
identical with this is the Ordo ad benedicendum imperatorem qnando 
coronam accipit, of 0. R. xn., P. L. Lxxvm. coll. 1101, 1102. 


is of the tenth or eleventh century. It differs con 
siderably from the last recension, and is more fixed 
and definite in character, but is still definitely 

First the Emperor takes the oath as follows : In 
nomine Christi promitto, spondeo, atque polliceor ego N. 
imperator coram Deo et beato Petro apostolo, me pro- 
tectorem ac defensorem esse huius ecclesiae sanctae 
Romanae in omnibus utilitatibus in quantum divino 
fultus fuero adiutorio, secundum scire meum ac posse. 

As he enters St Peter s the Cardinal Bishop of 
Albano meets him at the silver door, and recites 
the prayer, Deus in cuius manu corda sunt regum, 
a new form. Inside the church the Cardinal Bishop 
of Porto says the prayer Deus inenarrabilis auctor 
mundi, another new form, and after the Litany has been 
said, before the Confessio of St Peter, the Cardinal 
Bishop of Ostia anoints the Emperor on the right 
arm and between the shoulders with the oil of 
catechumens, using the form Domine Deus Omnipo- 
tens cuius est omnis potestas again another new form, 
which however is found in the rite by which Pope 
John VIII crowned Louis II of France at Troyes 
in 877. The Pope then crowns the Emperor, using 
one of three forms which are given, Accipe signum 
gloriae in nomine Patris, etc., or (alia) Accipe coronam 
a Domino Deo praedestinatam, or (alia) with the 
prayer Deus Pater aeternae gloriae. 



A third recension of the Roman rite may be seen 
in a group of orders of the twelfth century, that 
of the Pontifical of Apamea 1 , the Order of the 
Pontifical of Aries 2 , and Ordo III of Waitz 3 . It 
must be borne in mind that the rite was in a 
continual process of developement in all lands, and 
therefore however convenient it may be to trace its 
history by means of recensions, yet these recensions 
must be to some extent arbitrary, and indeed even in 
a group chosen to illustrate any given recension the 
documents vary to some extent from each other. 

The second of the orders mentioned above was 
that by which the Emperor Frederick I was crowned 
in 1155. 

The Emperor first takes the oath on the Gospels 
in the church of St Mary in Turri to defend the 
Roman Church ; thither he is attended by two arch 
bishops or bishops of his own realm, and thence he 
proceeds to St Peter s, where he is met at the 
entrance by the Bishop of Albano, who says the 
prayer Deus in emus manu. Inside the church the 
Bishop of Porto says the prayer Deus inenarrabilis 
auctor mundi. The Emperor then goes up into the 

1 Marine s Ordo VI, op. cit. n. p. 211. 

2 Martene s Ordo VII, ibid. p. 212; Pertz, M. G. Leyg., n. 97. 
Diemand (op. cit. p. 30) thinks that the title of this order Incipit 
Ordo qualiter rex Teutonicus etc. shews that this order is not 
official. But the Exercitus Teutonicus is prayed for in the 
Laudes of the Gemunden Codex. See above. 

8 Q. Waitz, Die Formeln der Deutschen Koniys- und der 
Romischen Kaiser-Kronung (Gottingen, 1872), pp. 67, 68. 


choir, and the Litany is said, he lying prostrate the 
while before the altar of St Peter. The Litany over, 
he is anointed by the Bishop of Ostia on the right 
arm and between the shoulders, before the altar of 
St Maurice. The three orders do not quite agree in 
the prayers of consecration. In the two orders of 
Martene the prayer of anointing is Domine Deus 
cuius est omnis potestas, or Deus Dei Films, this 
latter perhaps a non-Roman form, and here first 
found in the Roman rite. In the Ordo of Waitz 
the consecration prayer is Deus gui es iustorum 
gloria, the unction being made at the words Accende, 
quaesumus, cor eius ad amorem gratiae tuae per hoc 
unctionis oleum, unde unxisti sacerdotes, etc., followed 
by Domine Deus omnipotens cuius est, etc. Then the 
Pope sets the crown on his head, with the form 
(M. vin and W.) Accipe signum gloriae, W. also 
adding the prayer Coron-et te Deus. 

M. vi is more developed here. After the anointing 
the Pope gives the Emperor the sword at the altar of 
St Peter, Accipe gladium imperialem ad vindictam 
quidem malorum, etc., and kisses him ; he then girds 
the sword on him with the words Accingere gladio tuo 
super femur, etc., and kisses him ; and the Emperor 
brandishes it and then returns it to its sheath. Then 
the sceptre is delivered with the words Accipe scep- 
trum regni, virgam videlicet virtutis ; and finally 
the Pope crowns him, saying: Accipe signum gloriae, 
and once more kisses him. The Teutons then chant the 
Laudes in their own tongue, and Mass is celebrated. 

The rite is still simple at this period, but two 


developements in the ceremonial have taken place. 
The Emperor from this time forward takes the oath 
in the church of St Mary in Turri ; and is no longer 
anointed before the Confessio of St Peter, but in the 
chapel of St Maurice, no one henceforth being 
anointed before the Confessio but the Pope at his 
consecration \ 


The account given by Robert of Clary 2 of the coro 
nation of the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople, 
Baldwin of Flanders, in 1204, shews it to have been 
a purely Western ceremony. 

The Emperor accompanied by the clergy and 
nobles went in procession from the imperial palace 
to the church of St Sophia. Here he was arrayed 
in his royal vesture in a chamber specially pre 
pared for him. He was anointed kneeling before 
the altar, and was then crowned by all the bishops. 
There is no mention of any other investiture, though 
the sword, sceptre, and orb are all referred to. 
Finally he was enthroned holding the sceptre in 
his right hand and the orb in his left, and Mass 
was celebrated. 

The account given by Robert is very meagre, but 
the rite described is clearly Western, and apparently 
one very similar to the third recension of the Roman 

1 Diemand (op. cit.) divides the whole period from Otto I (962) 
Frederick II (1220) into three recensions only, in the first of which 
he classes all those orders in which the anointing takes place hefore 
the Confessio of St Peter. 

2 Hopf, Chroniques, p. 73 f. 



The end of the twelfth century is marked by 
a further developement in the rite contained in the 
Liber Censuum of Cardinal Cenci 1 . This particular 
rite was probably used at the coronation of Henry VI 
and the Empress Coustantia by Pope Celestine III in 

The Emperor and Empress go in procession to 
St Mary in Turri, the choir singing Ecce mitto 
angelum, and there the Emperor takes the oath to 
defend the Roman Church. The oath has become 
longer and the Emperor swears fealty to the Pope 
and to his successors and that he will be a defender 
of the Roman Church 3 , and kisses the Pope s foot. 
The Pope gives him the Peace, and the procession 
sets out to St Peter s, singing Benedictus Dominus 
Deus Israel. At the silver door of St Peter s the 
Bishop of Albano meets the Emperor and recites the 
prayer Deus in cuius manu sunt corda regum. As 

1 Pertz, M. G. Legg. n. 187 ff . 

2 So Pertz, I.e., but Diemand (op. cit. p. 35) takes it to be the 
Order used in the coronation of Henry III by Pope Clement II. 
This is without doubt an official Order. 

8 In nomine doinini nostri Jesu Christi. Ego N. rex, et 
futurus imperator Romanorum, promitto, spoudeo, polliceor, atque 
per haec evaugelia iuro coram Deo et beato Petro apostolo, tibi 
N. beati Petri apostoli vicario fidelitatem, tuisque successoribus 
canonice intrantibus ; meque arnodo protectorem ac defensorem 
fore hums sanctae Roinanae ecclesiae, et vestrae personae, ves- 
trorumque successorum in omnibus utilitatibus, in quantum divino 
fultus fuero adiutorio, secundum scire meurn ac posse, sine fraude 
et malo iiigeuio. Sic me Deus adiuvet et haec sancta Dei evaugelia. 

W. C. B. 4 


the Pope enters the Responsory Petre amas me is 
sung. Then under the Rota the Pope puts to the 
Emperor a series of questions concerning his faith 
and duty, and while the Pope retires to vest, the 
Bishop of Porto recites the prayer Deus inenarrabilis 
auctor mundi. Next the Emperor is vested in the 
chapel of St Gregory with amice, alb and girdle, and 
is led to the Pope, who facit eum clericum, and 
he is thereupon vested with tunic, dalmatic, pluviale, 
mitre, buskins, and sandals. The Bishop of Ostia 
then proceeds to the silver door, where the Empress 
has been waiting, and recites the prayer Omnipotens 
aeterne Deus fons et origo bonitatis, and she is then 
led to St Gregory s altar to await the Pope s pro 
cession. The Pope proceeds to the Confessio of 
St Peter and Mass is begun. After the Kyrie the 
Litany is said by the archdeacon, the Emperor and 
Empress lying prostrate the while. The Emperor 
is then anointed (apparently before the altar of 
St Maurice) 1 by the Bishop of Ostia with the oil of 
exorcism on the right arm and between the shoulders 
with the prayer Dominus Deus Omnipotens cuius est 
omnis potestas, followed by the prayer (once an 
alternative) Deus Dei Filius. The benediction of 
the Empress follows, Deus qui solus habes immortali- 
tatem, and she is anointed on the breast with the 

1 There is no mention of the place where the Emperor is 
anointed, but as he is invested before the altar of St Maurice 
it seems probable that here too he was anointed by the Bishop of 
Ostia as in the last recension. Diemaud seems not to have noticed 
where the investitures took place, and assumes that the unction was 
made before the Confessio of St Peter. 


form Spiritus Sancti gratia humilitatis nostrae officio 
copiosa descendat, etc. The Pope, the anointing 
over, descends to the altar of St Maurice, on which 
the crowns have been deposited, and delivers a ring- 
to the Emperor with the form Accipe anulum 
signaculum videlicet sanctae fidei, etc., followed by 
a short prayer, Dem cuius est omnis potestas, a much 
shortened form of the prayer already used at the 
anointing; next the sword is girt on with the form 
Accipe hunc gladium cum dei benedict ione tibi col- 
latum, and the prayer Deus qui providentia ; and he 
crowns the Emperor with the form Accipe signum 
gloriae, etc. The Empress is then crowned with the 
form Accipe coronam regalis excellentiae, etc. The 
Pope delivers the sceptre to the Emperor with the 
form Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis, virgam scilicet 
rectam regni, virgam virtutis, etc., followed by the 
prayer Omnium Domine fans bonorum. Then at the 
altar of St Peter the Gloria in excelsis is sung, and 
the special collect Deus regnorum omnium follows. 
The Laudes are now sung and then the Mass pro 
ceeds, the Emperor offering bread, candles, and gold ; 
and the Emperor offering wine, the Empress the 
water for the chalice. Both communicate, and on 
leaving St Peter s the Emperor swears, at three 
different places, to maintain the rights and privileges 
of the Roman people. 

The most noticeable thing in this recension is the 
appearance of the investiture with the ring, which 
comes from non-Roman sources and disappears again 
in the next recension. 



In the fourteenth century further developements 
appear. The order used at the coronation of Henry 
VIP, and the Ordo Romanus XIV of Mabillon 2 , may 
be taken as representative of this period. 

The oath is slightly varied. It is made, as usual, 
in the church of St Mary in Turri, where the Emperor 
is received by the canons as a brother canon, and 
the Emperor swears that he will be the protector 
of the Roman Church, but does not swear fealty 
to the Pope and his successors as in the preceding- 
recension. In St Peter s the Bishops of Albano and 
Porto say their accustomed prayers, and the Litany 
is said before St Peter s altar. Then the Bishop 
of Ostia, before the altar of St Maurice, anoints the 
Emperor on the right arm and between the shoulders 
with the prayers Domine Deus Omnipotent cuius est 
omnis potestas and Deus Dei Filius. After the 
anointing the Pope kisses the Emperor sicut unum 
ex diaconibus and Mass is begun at the altar of 
St Peter, the collect Deus regnorum omnium being 
said after the collect for the day. After the gradual 
the Pope first sets a mitre on the Emperor s head, 
and then crowns him with the form Accipe signum 
gloriae : the Sceptre and Orb are then delivered, 
though no forms of delivery are given, and lastly 
the Sword is delivered with the form Accipe gladium 

1 Pertz, M. G. Legg. pp. 528 ff. 

2 P. L. LXXVHI. coll. 1238 ff. Almost identical is Muratori a 
Order. See Lit. Rom. Vetus, Vol. H. p. 455. 


ad wndictam, etc., a longer form than hitherto used 
containing the words per nostras manus, licet indig- 
nas, vice tamen et auctoritate beatorum apostolorum 
consecratas imperialiter tibi concessum, and girt on 
with the words Accingere gladio tuo super femur, etc., 
and the Emperor thereupon kisses the Pope s feet. 
After the gradual the Laudes are sung. At the 
offertory the Emperor offers first gold, and then 
acting as sub-deacon (more subdiaconi) offers the 
chalice and water-cruet to the Pope. 

The Empress is met at the entrance of St Peter s 
and the prayer Omnipotens sempiterne Deus fons et 
origo, etc., is there said. When the Empress has 
been crowned she is brought to the Pope, who, after 
reciting the prayer Deus qui solus habes immortalita- 
tem, anoints her with the form Spiritus Sancti gratia, 
this form being longer than in the last recension. 
Then he places the mitre on her head ita quod 
cornua mitrae sint a dextris et a sinistris, and 
finally crowns her with the form Officio nostrae 
indignitatis in imperatricem solemniter benedicta 
accipe coronam imperialis excellentiae, etc. 

After the Communion it is added that the Pope 
may, if he wish, say the prayers Prospice, quaesumus, 
Domine Omnipotens Deus serenis obtutibus, Benedic, 
Domine, quaesumus, hunc principem, or (alia) Deus 
Pater aeternae gloriae, all of which occur in earlier 
Roman rites. 



The final recension of the Roman rite appears 
in the Pontifical of 1520 1 . There is very little 
difference between this and the last recension. It 
is mentioned that the Emperor is clad in surplice 
and almuce at his reception as a canon at St Mary 
in Turri. The old privileges of the Cardinal bishops 
of Albano, Porto, and Ostia have passed away, and 
any Cardinal bishop may officiate in their place. 
The order of the investitures is different, first the 
delivery of the Sword, which the Emperor thrice 
brandishes after it has been girt on him ; secondly 
the Sceptre and Orb, which are delivered, the Orb 
in his right hand and the Sceptre in his left, under 
one form, Accipe mrgam virtutis atque veritatis ; 
lastly the Crown, after which the Emperor kisses 
the Pope s feet. The Empress is crowned as before. 
At the offertory the Emperor serves the Pope as 
a sub-deacon. After the Communion the Emperor 
kisses the Pope s cheek and the Empress his hand, 
and the Pope can say, if he wish, the three prayers 
allowed in this place in the last recension. 

Here we leave the Roman imperial rite at the 
last stage of its developement. It may be noted that 
the Roman Emperor was three times crowned ; first 
at Aachen, later sometimes at Frankfort, as King of 
the Eastern Franks, or after the time of Henry II as 

1 Pontificate Romanum (1520). De coronatione Roman! Im- 

The Emperor Charles V in his Coronation robes 


King of the Romans 1 ; secondly at Milan (or more 
often as a matter of fact at Monza) as King of Italy 
or King of the Lombards ; thirdly at Rome by 
the Pope as Roman Emperor. Until he had been 
crowned at Rome he was only Imperator Electus or 
Erwahlter Kaiser. As a matter of fact no Emperor 
was crowned at Rome after the time of Frederick III 
(1440), though Charles V was crowned as Emperor at 

1 Rex Teutonicorum occurs often m the tenth aud eleventh 
centuries. Rex Germanicorum occurs once or twice in early times. 
Maximilian I first added the title Hex Germaniae. Bryce says 
that there is reason to think that in later times Ericallter began to 
acquire the meaning of elective in the place of elect. See 
Roman Empire, p. 531, note b. (Ed. 1910.) 



As we have seen, the coronation rite is found 
existing in the new kingdoms of the West some two 
centuries before an imperial coronation rite was called 
into existence in the West at the resuscitation of the 
Empire by Charlemagne. In Spain the rite is found 
in use in the seventh century, in Prankish lands it was 
already well established in the eighth century, and in 
England a rite was used at the end of the same 
century certainly on two occasions though under 
special and abnormal circumstances 1 . 

In the ninth century a Roman rite for the corona 
tion of a king came into being, partly derived from the 
Roman imperial forms but largely influenced also by 
the other existing royal rites. From this time there 
was a continual reaction of the Roman and the 
national rites upon each other, and it is safe to say 
that on no two occasions even in the same country 
was the rite used in exactly the same form, so 
unceasing was the developement. 

1 The first reference to the consecration of a Saxon king is 
found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the year 785, when 
Ecgferth was associated as king by his father Oifa. 


The classifying of the different developements of 
the rite even of one country is a work of considerable 
difficulty. The Recensions by means of which the 
developement of each rite is marked are, to a certain 
extent, arbitrary, and simply mark periods at which 
the process of developement has evolved definite 
changes. There is a vast number of forms in exis 
tence, many of which were probably never used but 
simply served to render the Pontificals in which they 
occur complete. 

The history of the rite is most easy to follow in 
the older kingdoms of England and France, in which 
both the monarchical and the national spirit were 
most marked, and which accordingly were inclined 
to shew a somewhat independent spirit towards the 
Papacy. Germany and Hungary were largely in 
fluenced in their rite by the Roman, while those 
lands, such as the Scandinavian kingdoms and 
Scotland, which emerged somewhat late from a 
condition of semi-barbarity, only attained to the 
dignity of possession of a coronation rite at a time 
when the prestige of things Roman was well estab 
lished, with the result that their rite appears to have 
been more or less Roman. 


There are six well-marked recensions of the 
English rite. 

(1) The Order of the so-called Pontifical of 

(2) The so-called Order of Ethelred II. 


(3) The Order of the twelfth century. 

(4) The Order of the Liber Eegalis, which lasted 
(in English from the time of James I) until the reign 
of James II. 

(5) The Order of James II. 

(6) The Order of William and Mary, which with 
comparatively unimportant changes has been used 
down to the present time. 


The earliest form of the English rite is that 
which is found in the so-called Pontifical of Egbert, 
Archbishop of York 732-766. Of this rite Dom 
Cabrol 1 says that it is sans doute le plus ancien 
qui existe. But the whole question of the date 
of this Pontifical, and its connection with Egbert 
is one that much needs investigation, and in the 
absence of any recent and thorough discussion of 
these points, it is precarious to deal with this docu 
ment as belonging to the eighth century. 

As to the existence of a coronation rite among 
the Anglo-Saxons, we find two allusions to a religious 
ceremony in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle at the end 
of the eighth century. Thus under the year 785 we 
are told thatEcgferth, who was associated on the throne 
by his father Offa, was in that year hallowed as 
king 8 (to cyninge gehalgod). The same authority 

1 DACL, art. Bretagne (grande-), col. 1238. 

2 Dom Cabrol, loc.cit., giving the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as his 
authority, most unjustifiably states that Ecgferth was couronue" 
et oint. In the case of Ecgferth the A.-S. Chronicle account goes 


speaks of the consecration of Earchvulf on his 
accession to the Northumbrian throne in the year 
795 ; he was then consecrated and raised to his 
throne (geblestod 7 to his cinestole ahofen). 
Eardwulf who was of the old line of kings had been 
called to the throne after a usurpation. 

Both these kings were, however, raised to the 
throne under peculiar circumstances, and we cannot 
therefore regard this evidence as proof that a coro 
nation rite was definitely established in England by 
the end of the eighth century because of these iso 
lated instances occurring in the two Saxon kingdoms 
of Mercia and Northumbria, all the more so as in 
both cases it was the influence of the Church that set 
these kings on the throne. We are also told by Asser 
a story of the consecration of Alfred as king by Pope 
Leo IV at Rome, whither he had been sent by his 
father Ethelwulf. This story is embellished and 
repeated by other writers 1 , who add that Alfred 
retained the regalia and vestments used at this 
Roman coronation, and that they were preserved 

back to the compiler of the Winchester Annals drawn up under 
Alfred. What his sources were we do not know. In the case of 
Eardwulf of Northumbria we have the contemporary Northumbrian 
Annals embedded in Simeon of Durham and known through him 
and certain passages common to him and the A.-S. Chronicle, 
extending from the death of Bede to 802. 

1 Rich, de Cirencestria, Speculum Historiale (Rolls Series), 
n. p. 27. We have the evidence of a charter of Burgred and 
Aethelswyth to show that crowns were among the regalia of the 
Mercian kings in the ninth century, but this does not necessarily 
imply any religious ceremony of coronation. J. M. Kemble, Codex 
Diplom., n. 94. 


henceforward among the English regalia. But a 
fragment of a letter from Pope Leo to Ethelwulf 
disposes of this legend altogether, for in it he informs 
King Ethelwulf that he has invested his son Alfred 
with the insignia of a Roman consul 1 . Asser makes 
no mention of any coronation of Alfred in England. 

The Order then of the Pontifical of Egbert must 
be used with caution. All that we can say with 
respect to its date is that a comparison between it 
and the so-called Order of Ethelred, which is of the 
tenth century, shews that the former is an earlier 
compilation than the latter, and much simpler and 
less fixed in character. 

The Order 2 is called Benedictio super regem noviter 
elect urn, and the Mass into which it is inserted is 
called Missa pro regibus in die benedictionis. The 
Mass collect is Deus regnorum omnium et Ckristiani 
maxime protector imperil, da servo tuo regi nostro 
N. triumphum mrtutis suae scienter excolere, ut cuius 
constitutione sunt principes eius semper munere sint 

1 See Stubbs Introd. to William of Malmesbury, Gesta Begum 
(Rolls Series), n. p. xlii, n. 4. Filium vestrum Erfred quern 
hoc in tempore ad sanctorum apostolorum limina destinare curastis, 
benigne suscepimus et quasi spiritalem filium consulatus cingulo, 
honors, vestimentisque, ut mos est Romanis consulibns, decora- 
Timus, eo quod in nostris se tradidit manibns. 

2 Henderson, Pontificate of Egbert (Surtees Soc., Vol. xxvn.), 
pp. 100 ff . Another text of the same Order is printed from the 
Pontificate Lanalatense by L. G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation 
Becords, Westminster, 1901, pp. 3 ff., who also gives the unimportant 
variations of the text of the Order as it appears in the Leoffric 


The Epistle is Lev. xxvi. 6-9, and the Gospel is 
that which is used in the English rite to this day, 
Matt. xxii. 15-22. After the Gospel the coronation 
service begins, and seven prayers are contemplated 
as being used. 

1. Te invocamus. 

2. Deus qui populis tuis, or (alia) 1 In diebus 
eius oriatur. 

3. Deus electorum fortitudo. This is the con 
secration prayer, and while one bishop says it all the 
other bishops anoint the king on the head. During 
the unction is sung the anthem Unxerunt Salomonem 
and the Ps. Domine in virtute tua. 

4. A series of 15 benedictions, said probably by 
different bishops, following the delivery of the 
Sceptre to the king : Benedic Domine hunc praesulem, 

5. The Verge or bacillus is delivered to the king 
with the form Omnipotens det tibi Deus de rare caeli. 

6. The crowning takes place. All the bishops 
set the Crown on the king s head with the prayer 
Benedic Domine fortitudinem regis. The people 
immediately acclaim the king with the cry Vivat rex 
N. in sempiternum, and the nobles salute him with 
a kiss 2 . 

7. The last prayer is Deus perpetuitatis auctor. 

1 Reference is made in this rite to seven prayers used, and In 
diebus is therefore evidently regarded as an alternative. Some 
times it is very uncertain whether Alia means or, or also. 

8 This detail follows the text of the Leoffric Missal. In the 
other two texts it is apparently stated that the people kiss the king, 
but the rubric is in all three texts confused and probably corrupt. 


After this the Mass proceeds, and there is a 
special Preface. It is noticeable that all the variable 
Mass prayers are Roman. 

At the end of the rite there is appended a short 
charge on the three chief duties of a king, Rectitudo 
regis est noviter ordinati . . .haec tria praecepta populo 
Christiana sibi subdito praecipere, namely to secure 
the peace of Church and people, to repress violence 
and rapine, and to be just and merciful. Probably 
in such words as these the king s oath ran. The 
oath in the next recension is in almost the same 
words, and most of the prayers reappear later in 
other rites. There is no provision made for the 
coronation of a Queen consort, just as in the Eastern 
rite there is no provision made for the ceremonial 
crowning of the Empress. But there seems to have 
been some prejudice among the Anglo-Saxons against 
any very close association of the king s consort with 
him on the throne 1 , apparently on account of the 
matrimonial irregularities of which Saxon kings were 
guilty in common with most other Teutonic monarchs. 

It is to be noticed that the crown is called the 
Galeus, a word which recalls the TrepiKe^aAaiov 
of the Eastern Emperor. The Saxon 

1 For the nation of the West-Saxons does not allow a queen to sit 
beside the king, nor to be called a queen, but only the king s wife. 
Asser, De rebus gestis Aelfredi, s.a. 856 (Petrie, Mon. Hist. Brit. 
p. 471). The Annales Bertiniani, which s. a. 856 recount the corona 
tion of Judith in France, definitely state that the coronation of a 
queen was not practised among the Saxons. See Pertz, M.G.H. 
Script, i. 450. For the position accorded to the consorts of Anglo- 
Saxon kings, see Liebermann, Gesetze der Angelsachsen, n. s. T. 


kings of later date called themselves /3ao-<Aet5. And 
in the charter of Burgred and Aethelswyth, to 
which reference has already been made, one of the 
regular Greek terms for the imperial crown is actually 
used Ego Burgred rex necnon ego Aethelswytha 
pari coronata stemma regali Anglorum regina. These 
facts may possibly indicate the influence of the 
Eastern Empire on the courts of the West, though 
they may simply illustrate the Latin of the period. 


The order that marks the second recension of the 
English rite, and which is called the Order of King 
Ethelred, was in all probability that used at the 
coronation of Edgar in 973. 

In this second recension of the English rite every 
portion of the older is represented but there is more 
solemnity. In the delivery of the insignia there is 
a greater formality ; and whereas the rite in Egbert s 
book is simply called Benedictiones super regem, in 
this order it is called Consecratio Regis. Alternative 
forms are provided, and whereas in Egbert the rite is 
inserted into the Mass, in later recensions the whole 
rite precedes the Mass. 

As the king enters the church the anthem 
Firmetur manus is sung. Then the king prostrates 
himself before the altar during the singing of Te Deurn. 
After this the king takes the oath, which is the charge 
at the end of Egbert s order transformed into a direct 
oath by a slight alteration of the first few words 1 . 

1 triapopulo Christiana etmihi svbdito in Christipromitto 
nomine. In primis ut ecclesia Dei et omnis populua Christianu* 


Then is said Te invocamus, (alia) Deus qui populis, 
(alia) In diebus eius oriatur. Here probably the 
alia means or though it may mean also. Now 
comes the Consecratio, Omnipotens sempiterne Deus 
creator ac gubernator, (alia) Deus elector um for titudo, 
(item alia) Deus Dei Filius. Of these three prayers 
the first is found in the rite used by Abp Hincmar at 
the coronation of Louis II in 877, and also in the 
Ordo Romanus of Hittorp of about the same date ; 
the second is the consecration prayer of Egbert ; the 
third is an early Roman form, and is found in nearly 
all subsequent rites. Then follows a new feature, 
the investiture with the Ring, with the form Accipe 
anulum signaculum videlicet sanctae fidei and the 
prayer Deus cuius est omnis potestas, both of them 
found in Hittorp s Ordo Romanus. The king is 
then girt with the Sword with the form Accipe hunc 
gladium, which is different from the Roman form, 
and now first occurs, and the prayer Deus qui pro- 
videntia tua, which also now first appears, and is 
based on a collect in the Gregorian Sacramentary for 
use in time of war. The king is crowned with the 
form Coronet te Deus, which was used at the coro 
nation of Charles the Bald at Metz in 869 ; and the 
prayer Deus perpetuitatis follows. The Sceptre is 
delivered with the form Accipe sceptrum regiae potes- 

veram pacem nostro arbitrio in omm tempore servet. Aliud u< 
rapacitates et crimes initjuitates omnibus gradibus interdicam. 
Tertium ut omnibus iudiciis aequitatem et misericordiam prae- 
cipiam, ut mihi et vobis indvlgeat suam misericordiam clement et 
misericors deus. Qui vivit. 


tatis followed by the prayer Omnium Domine fons 
bonorum, both of which occur first here and in the con 
temporary French order of Ratold. The Verge is then 
delivered with the form Accipe virgam virtutis atque 
aequitatis 1 , which first occurs in the Ordo Romanus 
of Hittorp. A series of nine benedictions follows, six 
of which occur in the orders of Charles the Bald (869) 
and Louis II (877), and the last three in Egbert s rite. 
Finally the king is enthroned with the form Sta et 
retine, a form which first occurs here and in Ratold s 
rite, followed by the blessings Omn. det tibi Dem 
de rore, (alia) Benedic Domine fortitudinem principis, 
both of which occur in the forms of Egbert. 

The Mass prayers, which are different from those 
of Egbert, are found in the Missa quotidiana pro 
rege of the Gregorian Sacramentary. 

In this recension the coronation of the queen 
consort first occurs. She is anointed on the head 
with the form In nomine Patris... prosit tibi haec 
unctio olei in honorem, etc., and the prayer Omn. 
semp. Dens affluentem spiritum 1 . Both these forms 

1 In the text of this recension given in Dr Wickham Legg s 
Three Coronation Orders (H. B. S. 1900), p. 59, the form with which 
the verge is delivered is followed by a prayer, Ineffabilem misen- 
cordiam tuam ; and then the pallium is given with the form, 
Accipe nunc vestem summi honoris, and a prayer, Omn. Deus 
cuncti honoris iustus depositor. None of these forms appear 

2 In this prayer occur the words, tjuae per manus iiontrae 
impositionem hodie regina instil aitur. These words have been 
regarded by some as evidence, lingering on only in the forms for 
the crowning of a queen, that originally there was a laying on 
of hands at the consecration of a king. The ordinatio of King 
Aidan by St Columba is adduced as further evidence, and the 

W. C. R. 5 


here first occur. The Ring is then given with the 
form Accipe anulum fidei signaculum sanctae Trini- 
tatis, and the prayer Deus cuius est omnis potestas 
(which is not the same prayer as that found elsewhere 
with the same beginning in the coronation of a king), 
both of which appear now for the first time. Lastly 
the queen is crowned with the form Accipe coronam 
gloriae, and the prayer Omnium Dominejons bonorum ; 
the second of which is a shortened form of the corre 
sponding prayer in the order for the coronation of 
the king, while the former is a slighly different 
edition of the form in Hittorp s Ordo Romanus. 
It may be noted that the forms for the coronation 
of a queen given in the order of Ratold, and 
forming the second recension of the French rite, 
are almost identical with those of the English 

The developement of the rite in this second re 
cension is most marked, and it is interesting to note 
that the same influences have been at work on the 
French rite of this period, which is very close to the 
second English recension. 

expression of Photius x.etpo6ea-ia Paari\eia? might also be adduced. 
Both, if they have any other than a general meaning, doubtless 
refer to the laying on of hands always anciently observed in 
blessing. But in this particular passage the words evidently refer 
simply to the setting of the crown on the queen s head. 



In the twelfth century a third recension of the 
English rite 1 appears, in which the rite has been 
subjected to a very considerable Roman influence. 
The Ordo Romanus of Hittorp or some kindred order 
has been followed to a large extent in preference to 
the old national order. 

As the king enters the church the anthem 
Firmetur manus is sung, and the king lies prostrate 
before the altar during the Litany. The intro 
duction of the Litany is a new feature and Roman. 
After the Litany the king takes the oath, In Christi 
nomine promitto haec tria populo Christiana. A bishop 
then asks the people whether they accept the Elect 
as king, Si tali principi, etc., and they answer 
Volumus et concedimus. This recognition is a new 
formal feature, but informally it had taken place 
long before, e.g. at the coronation of William I. 
It also appears in the French order of Louis VIII, 
but disappears again from the French rite later on. 
Then is said the prayer Omn. aeterne Deus creator 
omnium, followed by a series of benedictions, the 
same as those which follow the delivery of the 
sceptre in Egbert, but in a shorter form. Next 
is said the prayer Deus ineffabilis auctor mundi, 
which is first found in the order by which Pope 
John VII crowned Louis II at Troyes in 877. It 
occurs henceforward in practically every order, but 

1 See L. Q. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records, pp. 30 S. 



whereas the word ineffabilis is always used in the 
English orders (and the German Aachen order) else 
where inenarrabilis is always found. The anointing 
is much more elaborate than heretofore ; first the 
hands are anointed Unguantur manus istae, etc., then 
follows the consecration prayer (Roman) Prospice 
omnipotens Deus, after which the king is anointed on 
head, breast, shoulders and bends of arms, Unguantur 
caput istud, pectus, etc., and during the anointing 
the Responsory Deum time is sung. This elaborate 
unction is identical with that prescribed in Hittorp s 
order, though the forms are not the same. After 
the anointing is said Deus Dei Filius, (alia) Deus qui 
es iustorum gloria. The investitures are then made ; 
the Sword with the Roman form A ccipe gladium per 
manus, etc. ; the Armills and the Pallium with forms 
now first appearing, Accipe armillas sinceritatis, and 
Accipe pallium, etc. Then comes the coronation, 
the crown being blessed with the prayer Deus tuorum 
corona, and the king being crowned with the form 
Coronet te Deus, which is first found at the coronation 
of Charles the Bald in 869. The prayer Deus per- 
petuitatis follows the coronation. The ring is given 
with the Roman form Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum ; 
the sceptre with the old form Accipe sceptrum regiae 
potestatis, and the prayer Omnium Domine fans bo- 
norum ; and lastly the verge with the old form. The 
Benedictions which follow are those contained in 
Hittorp s order, and finally the king is enthroned 
with the form Sta et retine. 

The queen s coronation follows in substance 


Hittorp s order, while retaining some of the features 
of the last English recension. 

The first prayers Omn. semp. Deus fons et origo 
and Deus qui solus habes both follow the Roman 
order. At the unction the Roman prayer Spiritus 
sancti gratia is found, while the actual form of 
anointing In nomine Patris and following, Omn. semp. 
Deus afflwntem, etc., are of the last English order. 
The ring is given with the old English form slightly 
altered and the prayer Deus cuius est omnis potestas, 
also from the English rite. There is the same bene 
diction of the queen s crown as of the king s, and she 
is crowned with the old form or (alia) the Roman 
Officio nostrae indignitatis, and the rite ends with 
the English Omnium Dominejons bonorum. 


A fourth recension is that of the Liber Regalis 1 , 
and was probably the order used for the first time at 
the coronation of Edward II. This recension, which 
represents the English rite in its most elaborate form, 
returns in part to the second recension and combines 
it with the Romanised rite of the last recension. This 
conflation renders it very long. This fourth recension 
remained more or less unchanged until the time of 
James II, although in English for James I onward. 

The recognition takes place as a preliminary to 
the rite, and then the rite begins with the anthem 

1 L. G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records, pp. 81 ff. 
For other forms of this fourth recension cp. J. Wickham Legg, 
Missale Westmonasteriense (H. B. S.), n. coll. 673 ff., and Maskell, 
Monumenta Ritualia, m. pp. 1-81. 


Firmetur manus as in the last recension, and the 
king makes his first oblation, and then is said a 
prayer now first appearing, Dem humilium visitator, 
which is adapted from a collect in the Gregorian 
sacramentary in adventu fratrum supervenientium. 
A sermon is now introduced, after which the king 
takes the oath, no longer directly, but in answer to 
interrogations as in the Roman rite. Finito quidem 
sermone...metropolitanus...interroget, Si leges et con 
suetudines ab antiquis iustis et Deo devotis regibus 
plebi Anglorum concessas cumsacramenti confirmations 
eidem plebi concedere et servare voluerit ; et praesertim 
leges, consuetudines, et libertates a glorioso rege 
Edwardo clero populoque concessas. 

The king promising that he will maintain these 
rights, the Archbishop then puts to him the following 
questions : 

Servabis ecclesiae Dei cleroque et populo pacem ex 
Integra et concordiam in Deo secundum vires tuas ? 
Resp., Servabo. 

Fades fieri in omnibus iudiciis tuis aequam et 
rectam iustitiam et discretionem in rnisericordia et 
veritate secundum vires tuas ? R. Faciam. 

Concedis iustas leges et consuetudines esse tenendas, 
et promittis eas per te esse protegendas, et ad honorem 
Dei roborandas quas vulgus elegerit secundum vires 
tuas ? R. Concedo et promitto. 

Then follows the bishops petition Domine Rex a 
vobis perdonari and the king s promise to preserve 
the rights and privileges of the Church, which is 
probably derived from the French rite. After this 


Veni Creator is sung, and then is said the old prayer 
Te invocamus reintroduced into the rite and the 
Litany, after which are sung the Penitential psalms 
a new feature. 

The consecration section of this recension is a 
curious conflation of a number of consecration 
prayers. Omn. semp. Dens creator omnium 1 , (alia) 
Benedic Domine hunc regem, (alia) Deus ineffabilis, 
followed by the restored Deus qui populis tuis, and 
then the actual consecration prayer, the old Deus 
electorum fortitude, introduced by Sursum corda and 
Preface. The king is now anointed on the hands 
with the form Unguantur manus, the anthem Un- 
xerunt Salomonem being sung the while, and after 
the prayer Prospice omn. Deus serenis obtutibus (the 
Roman consecration prayer) the king is anointed in the 
form of a cross on the breast, each shoulder, between 
the shoulders, at the bend of each arm, and on the 
head. After the anointing the prayers Deus Dei 
Filius and Deus qui es iustorum are said. The king 
is now arrayed in the Colobium sindonis, and the 
Archbishop proceeds to bless the regalia, using for 
the purpose the prayer here first occurring, Deus 
rex regum. The king is then arrayed in tunic, hose, 
and buskins, and the Archbishop then blesses the 
sword, using the prayer Exaudi Domine preces 
nostras, which now appears for the first time. The 
investiture with sword, armills, pallium, and crown 

1 In this recension the words qnem in huius regni regem pariter 
eligimus in this prayer are altered to quern . . . consecramus. The 
change was never made in the same prayer in the French rite. 


then takes place, the accompanying forms being 
those of the last recension. After the crowning the 
anthem Confortare et esto vir is sung, and the ring 
is first blessed with two prayers now first occurring, 
Deus caelestium terrestriumque and Benedic Domine 
et sanctifica anulum, and then delivered with the 
form of the last recension followed by the prayer 
Deus cuius est omnis potestas. The sceptre and 
verge are then delivered with the forms of the last 
recension, and finally after the three benedictions 
and Te Deum conies the enthronisation. The king 
being enthroned the homage is done. 

In this recension the coronation of the queen 
consort is very similar to the rite of the last recension, 
the differences being that the first prayer in the third 
recension, Omn. semp. Deus fons et origo, is omitted, 
the prayer Spiritus Sancti gratia before the unction 
disappears, and Officio indignitatis is no longer an 
alternative form, but is said after the coronation has 
taken place with the older English form. The queen 
is anointed on head and breast. 

The Mass prayers are similar to those of the 
second recension, but there are some differences ; 
a collect is said for the queen as well as for the king ; 
the two prayers Omn. Deus det tibi de rare and 
Benedic Domine fortitudinem (which are said im 
mediately after the enthronisation in the second 
recension, but had disappeared from the third) are 
said at the king s second oblation of a mark of gold ; 
an alternative Secret is given, that of the Roman 
Missa pro Imperatore ; a blessing of the king and 


people is inserted before the Agnus Dei ; and the 
alternative Postcomm union is different from the 
alternative of the second recension. 

The rite of the Liber Regalis was used, as has 
been said, until the time of James II. It was rendered 
into English for James I 1 , and served in an almost 
identical form for the coronations of Charles I and 
Charles II. The version is not very elegant, but 
it is certainly as good an English composition as the 
original is a Latin. The miraculous chrism 2 was 
last used at the coronation of Elizabeth, and was 
then either exhausted or had become unfit for 
further use. The form with which Archbishop 
Laud consecrated the chrism for the coronation of 
Charles I still exists 3 . 

The Recognition becomes at this time an integral 
part of the rite, and is introduced by an anthem. 
Immediately after the Recognition the anthem 
Firmetur manus and Ps. Ixxxix are sung. The 
king then makes his first oblation and the Arch 
bishop says the prayer God which visitest those 
that are humble (Deus visitator humilium). The 
king now takes the oath, which is given in Latin 

1 J. Wickham Legg, The Order of the Coronation of King 
James I (Russell Press, London, 1902). 

2 The miraculous chrism first appears in the fourteenth cen 
tury. It was given by the Virgin to St Thomas Becket. Probably 
the miraculous chrism of England owes its existence to the desire 
of the English not to be outdone by the French who possessed a 
chrism supplied by an angel for the coronation of Clovis. 

8 Chr. Wordsworth, Coronation of King Charles I, 1626, 
pp. xix, xx. 


and French as well as English, and the petition 
of the bishops, Domine Rex a vobis perdonari, which 
is left untranslated. Veni Creator is then sung, 
followed by We beseech thee, Lord, Holy Father 
(Te invocamus], and the Litany in English with 
a special petition proper to the occasion. Then 
are said the four prayers Almighty and everlasting 
God, Creator of all things (Omn. semp. Deus creator 
omnium} ; Lord, thou that governest all kingdoms 
(Benedic Domine} ; God the unspeakable Author 
{Deus ineffabilis) ; and God which providest for thy 
people (Deus qui populis). The consecration follows, 
God the strength of thy chosen (Deus electorum fortl- 
tudo\ introduced by Sursum corda and Preface, the 
prayer being slightly altered in some of its phrases. 
The king s hands are then anointed with the form 
Let these hands be anointed (Unguantur manus), 
followed by the anthem Zadok the priest ( Unxerunt 
Salomonem) and the prayer Look down, Almighty God 
(Prospice omnipotent) ; the king is then anointed on 
the breast, between the shoulders, on both shoulders, 
on the boughts of the arms, and on the crown of the 
head. Then follow the prayers God the Son of God 
(Deus Dei Filius) and God which art the glory of the 
righteous (Deus qui es iustorum gloria). The king is 
now vested with Colobium and Dalmatic, after which 
the Archbishop says the prayer God the King of 
kings (Deus Rex regum) ; then with the Supertunica 
or close pall, hose, and sandals by the Dean of 

1 Faciendo signum crucis is struck ont, but the queen is 
anointed in the manner of a cross. 


Westminster, and with the spurs by a nobleman. 
The Sword is blessed with the form Hear our 
prayers (Exaudi quaesumus), and is delivered to 
the king with the form Receive this kingly sword 
(Accipe gladium). He is invested with the Armill, 
Receive the armill (Accipe armillas) ; with the 
Mantle or open pall, Receive this pall (Accipe 
pallium ) ; with the Crown, the Archbishop taking 
it in his hands and saying God the crown of the 
faithful (Deus tuorum), and God of eternity (Deus 
perpetuitatis}, and crowning the king with the form 
God crown thee (Coronet te Deus}. The choir in 
the mean time sings the anthems Be strong (Con- 
fortare) and The king shall rejoice (Deus in virtute). 
The Archbishop now blesses the Ring with the 
prayers God the creator of all things in heaven 
(Deus caelestium) and Bless, Lord, and sanctify 
(Benedic Deus), and places it on the king s right 
wedding finger, saying Receive the ring of kingly 
dignity {Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum). Then 
the prayer God, to whom belongeth all power (Deus 
cuius est\ after which the king offers the sword and 
it is redeemed. The Archbishop delivers the Scep 
tre, Receive the sceptre (Accipe sceptrum), and prays 
Lord, the fountain of all good things (Omnium 
Domine fons) ; likewise the Verge, Receive the rod 
(Accipe virgam). The Archbishop then blesses the 
king, The Lord bless thee (Bemdicat tibi} Te Deum 
is sung, and the king is enthroned with the form 
Stand and hold fast (Sta et refine), after which the 
peers do their homage. 


The order of the queen s coronation follows that 
of the Liber Regalis. First is said by a bishop at 
the west door of the Abbey the prayer Almighty 
and everlasting God, the fountain (Omn. semp. Deus 
Jons et origo), then at the altar God, which only hast 
immortality (Deus qui solus}. She is then anointed 
on the crown of her head with the form In the name 
of the Father (In nomine}, and then on the breast, 
the same form being repeated, after which is said the 
prayer Almighty everlasting God, we beseech thee 
(Omn. semp. Deus affluentem). She is then given 
the Ring with the form Receive this ring (Accipe 
anulum), and the prayer God, to whom belongeth 
all power (Deus cuius est omnis potestas). The Arch 
bishop blesses the Crown saying God the crown 
of the faithful (Deus tuoruin), and crowns her with 
the form Receive the crown of glory (Accipe coronam), 
adding : Seeing you are by our ministry solemnly con 
secrated (Officio indignitatis), after which he says the 
prayer Lord, the fountain (Omnium Domine fons), 
and so ends the queen s coronation. 

The Communion service follows, beginning at the 
collect Almighty God, we. beseech thee that this thy 
servant (Quaesumus omn. Deus ut famulus}. The 
epistle and gospel are the same as in the Liber 
Regalis. The offertory is sung, and the king offers 
bread and wine and a mark of gold. At this point 
are inserted the two blessings Almighty God give thee 
(Omn. Deus det tibi) and Bless, Lord, the virtuous 
carriage (Benedic Domine fortitudinem), which occur 
in the Liber Regalis after the enthrouisation. The 


Secret is the old prayer Bless, we beseech thee, Lord, 
these thy gifts (Munera Domine quaes. oblata). There 
is no longer a special preface as heretofore. 

In the Order of Charles I there are a few un 
important variations. A sermon is introduced 
before the king takes the oath. In the Consecration 
prayer (God the strength) a return is made to the 
original, which had been slightly altered for James I. 
The old order of the prayers God crown thee and 
God of eternity is reverted to. The first of the 
two blessings of the ring disappears. Perhaps the 
prayer God the unspeakable author was not used 1 , 
as it does not occur in the copy of the order which 
the king himself used on his coronation day. In the 
Eucharist the two blessings after the offertory are 
said after, instead of before, the Secret. 

Queen Henrietta Maria was not crowned. 

At his trial, among the many accusations brought 

1 The MS. copy of the order which the king himself used is now 
in the library of St John s College, Cambridge. Prynne (Canter- 
burie s Doome, p. 70) accuses Abp Laud of having inserted divers 
prayers into the order from the Koinan Pontifical, an assertion due 
to either his ignorance or his malice, for the examples which he 
gives are all in the old English rite. Heylin (Cyprianus Anglicus, 
ed. 1668, p. 14 2) states that there was used at the coronation of 
Charles I a prayer which had been intermitted since Henry VI and 
was that that followeth : " Let him obtain favour for the people like 
Aaron in the tabernacle, Elisha in the waters, Zacharias in the 
temple; give him Peter s key of discipline and Paul s doctrine," 
which clause had been omitted in times of Popery, as intimating 
more ecclesiastical jurisdiction to be given to our kings than the 
Popes allowed of. But this prayer does not occur in any of the 
extant copies of Charles rite, nor does it occur in any English 
order whatsoever, but it does occur in the Roman rite. Heylin seems 
to have confused this prayer with some other actually in the order . 


against him, Laud was accused of having tampered 
with the coronation oath 1 in two particulars. He 
was charged with adding to the first section the 
qualifying words agreeable to the King s prerogative, 
and of omitting from the last section the words 
quae populus elegerit. 

There was an alteration made in the first section. 
This concludes in the old oath of the Liber Regalis, 
which was used in English at the coronation of 
James I, with the words granted to the clergy and 
people by the glorious King, Saint Edward your 
predecessor. In the oath as taken by Charles I 
the words and people were omitted, while there 
was added at the end of the section according to 
the laws of God, the true profession of the Gospel 
established in this kingdom, and agreeing to the 
prerogative of the kings thereof and the ancient 
customs of this realm. Laud denied any knowledge 
of this alteration. 

In the last section of the oath the Liber Regalis 
has Concedis iustas leges et consuetudines esse tenendas, 
et promittis per te eas esse protegendas quas vulgus 
elegerit? Here again in the oath of Charles there 
is a modification of the wording, Sir, will you grant 
to hold and keep the rightful customs which the 
commonalty of this your kingdom have ? But this 
alteration had as a matter of fact been made at the 
time of the last coronation, for this passage is almost 
identical with the oath taken by James I. That there 

1 See Chr. Wordsworth, Coronation of King Charles I, 162 
(H. B. S. 1892), pp. Ixff., 18 ff. 


was in Stuart times a deliberate attempt to weaken 
the force of some of the language in the oath is 
evident. Henry VIII had been dissatisfied with the 
terms of the oath and made some attempt to alter it 
by the insertion of such modifying expressions as 
not prejudicial to his jurisdiction/ not prejudicial 
to his crown, which the nobles and people have 
made and chosen with his consent But his attempted 
revision came to nothing, and both he and Edward VI 
took the oath at their coronation in the form in which 
it stands in the Liber Reyalis 1 . 

It may also be noted here, as a matter connected 
with the oath, that up to the time of Henry VII the 
years of a king s reign were reckoned from the day of 
his coronation, the oath being regarded as the com 
pact or covenant made between him and his people, 
sealing as it were his election to the throne. From 
the time of Henry VIII onwards the king s reign 
has been reckoned from the death of his predecessor 2 . 

Laud took infinite pains in the preparation of the 
coronation ceremony, in which he acted in the place 
of the Dean of Westminster. His copy of the Order 
with his MS. annotations still exists in the library of 
St John s College, Cambridge. No detail is neglected 
and some of his notes are very amusing ; for exam 
ple, in connection with the putting on of hose and 
sandals he remarks, These both Hose and Shews 
the K : would haue putt on vpo his other shoes : 

1 L. G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records, pp. 240, 241. 

2 Sir Harris Nicolas, Chronology of History (London, 1833), 
pp. 272 f. 


w ch had almost indaingered y e tearinge of y e old 
Tinsin Hose. It is safer to vnlase them before hand 
when they be vsed againeV 

The recipe for the preparation of the chrism used 
is preserved. The chrism was consecrated by Laud, 
who was at that time Bishop of St David s, and who 
was acting for the Dean of Westminster. It is the 
dean s function to bless the chrism if he is a bishop. 
If he is not a bishop the archbishop himself conse 
crates it. 

It is perhaps most convenient at this point to 
deal with the coronation of King Charles at Holyrood 
by Abp Spotiswoode on June 18, 1633, for the rite 
then used was manifestly based on the English order, 
and was the work of Abp Laud. There are in it 
certain variations from the English rite, which were 
probably deliberately made with the intention of im 
parting a special Scottish character to the ceremony. 

After the Litany, instead of the four prayers of the 
English order only one occurs, which is a combination 
of the two English prayers Almighty and everlasting 
God, creator of all things and Lord, thou that 
governest all kingdoms. The prayer after the 
anointing, God the Son of God, is shortened. At 
the investitures the prayer God, the King of kings, 
a prayer of benediction of the ornaments, becomes 
a benediction of the king. The form accompanying 
the investiture of the Sword is shortened, and God 
of eternity disappears at the crowning. On the other 
hand there appears after the crowning what may 

1 Cbr. Wordsworth, op. cit., p. 36, n. 5. 


be a feature of the old Scottish rite, the Obligatory 
oath of the people, which is read out by the Earl 
Marshal : We swear, and by the holding up of our 
hands do promise all subjection and loyalty to king 
Charles our dread sovereign : and as we wish God to 
be merciful to us, shall be to his majesty true and 
faithful, and be ever ready to bestow our lives and 
lands and what else God hath given us, for the 
defence of his sacred person and crown. The form 
at the delivery of the Sceptre is slightly shortened. 
After the benediction, as in the English rite, the king 
kisses the archbishop and the bishops. The form 
of enthronisation is slightly altered, and after the 
enthronisation a royal pardon is proclaimed and the 
homage of the peers is done. Of the Communion 
service which follows no details whatever are given. 


With the accession of James II we come to an 
important point in the developement of the English 
rite. Since James was a member of the Roman 
Church he was not allowed to receive the Holy 
Sacrament after the use of the English Church, and 
Abp Sancroft was accordingly commissioned to edit 
the rite and omit the Communion altogether. Un 
happily Sancroft in his work of editing made many 
and considerable alterations in the rite itself, which 
have never subsequently been properly rectified 1 . 

After the Recognition the king and queen make 
their first oblation, and then is said the prayer 

1 L. G. Wickliam Legg, English Coronation Records, pp. 287 II. 
W. C. R. 6 


God, who dwellest in the high and holy place, 
which is a much altered version of Deus msitator 
humilium. The Litany is said, and then follow the 
prayers A Imighty and everlasting God, creator of all 
things, which has been altered and shortened, and 
God, who providest, practically unchanged. The 
two prayers Lord, thou that governest and God the 
unspeakable author are omitted. Here follows the 
sermon, and the sermon over, the king takes the 
oath, which is the same as that of Charles I, except 
that in the first question The Gospel established in 
the Church of England is changed to The Gospel 
established in this kingdom ; after which is sung 
the Veni Creator in the version now in use. Then is 
said We beseech thee, Lord, Holy Father (unaltered), 
and then, introduced by Sursum corda and Preface, 
the consecration prayer God, the exalter of the humble 
and strength of thy chosen (shortened), after which 
the choir sings Zadok the priest. The king is then 
anointed as hitherto with the form Be this head 
anointed with holy oil ; and as kings and prophets 
were anointed, etc. ; and the archbishop says the 
prayer God the son of God ; the prayer God which 
art the glory of the righteous being omitted. Certain 
changes are made in the forms of investiture ; the 
prayer said after the vesting with the Colobium is 
changed into a benediction of the king ; from the 
form with which the Sword is delivered it is noticeable 
that the words for the defence of Christ s holy church 
are omitted, and the reference to the persecution 
of infidels and heretics also disappears ; the form 


accompanying the investiture with the Pallium is 
made to include the delivery of the Orb, an 
unfortunate innovation which has been retained to 
this day, for the orb is perhaps but another form 
of the sceptre ; at the crowning God, the crown 
of the faithful appears in its present form, much 
altered from the original, and the prayers God crown 
thee and eternal God (0 God of eternity) are also 
altered ; the archbishop reads the first anthem Be 
strong, and the choir sings the second The king shall 
rejoice ; the blessing of the Ring is omitted, and the 
prayer following its delivery, God, to whom belongeth 
all power, also disappears ; the form of the investiture 
with the Verge is much changed. At this point the 
king makes his second oblation, which should have 
taken place at the offertory, and the archbishop 
blesses the king with the blessing The Lord give thee 
of the dew of heaven, a much altered edition of the 
older form, which in the previous order followed the 
Secret ; and then curiously enough there reappears a 
short edition of the old In diebus eius (In thy days 
may justice flourish), which last was used in the 
second recension of the English rite. A new bene 
diction appears, The Lord preserve thy life, and the 
old, The Lord bless thee and keep thee, is altered, 
the last prayer for clergy and people acquiring much 
of its present form, And the same good Lord grant 
that the clergy and people, etc. After Te Deum the 
king is enthroned in much the present form, and 
after the homage a final anthem is sung. 

At the queen s coronation the prayer Almighty 



and everlasting God, the fountain of all goodness 
is somewhat altered, and the next prayer God, 
which only hast immortality is omitted. In the 
prayer following the anointing the words that as by 
the imposition of hands she is this day crowned queen 
becomes that as by our office and ministry she is this 
day anointed and solemnly consecrated our queen. 
The form with which the ring is given is quite 
different from the form hitherto used after the 
opening words, and the prayer following, God, to 
whom belongeth all power, is omitted. At the crowning 
God, the crown of the faithful is omitted, and the 
forms Receive the crown of glory and Seeing you are 
by our ministry are combined into one. The order 
ends with the prayer Lord, the fountain of all good 
things and a final anthem. 

There was no Communion service, and after the 
crowning of the queen three final collects were said 
and then the Blessing. 

Archbishop San croft has been much blamed for 
his handiwork on the coronation rite, and it is 
certainly much to be regretted that he made so 
many and unnecessary alterations in the language 
of the old prayers. On the other hand it is a 
question whether the rite has not gained by the 
omission of some of the prayers, for the order as he 
found it was very conflate, many of the prayers being 
originally alternatives, which in process of time had 
become additional prayers in such a way as to cause 
a great deal of repetition and to make the service 
unnecessarily long and burdensome. 



At the election of William and Mary as King 
and Queen the rite was once more subjected to 
revision, and this time by one less fitted for the 
work than Bancroft, Henry Compton, Bp of London. 
The Order of William and Mary is practically that 
which has been handed down to the present day. 

There is prefixed to the order a feature unique 
among English coronation rites, an Order of Morning 
Prayer to be said on the morning of the coronation 
because it is fit and congruous, and accordingly the 
king is to be desired that he will be present at 
Morning Prayer in Whitehall, and so begin that 
glorious day with Him by whom kings reign. The 
Order is derived from the Form of Prayer and 
Thanksgiving authorized by James II for the day 
of his accession. 

Another unique feature in this rite is that by it 
two joint monarchs were crowned, for both William 
and Mary were regnant. 

The order begins with the anthem / was glad.. 
The Recognition is somewhat apologetic in tone, and 
in the place of King James the rightful inheritor 
of this crown appears King William and Queen 
Mary, undoubted King and Queen of this realm. 
The new anthem Blessed art tkou, Lord, is then 
sung in the place of the old, Let thy hand be 
strengthened, and the king and queen make their 

1 L. G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records, pp. 317 ff. ; 
J. Wickham Legg, Three Coronation Orders, pp. H ft. 


first oblation, after which the Bp of London (acting 
in the place of Abp Sancroft) says the prayer God, 
who dwellest in the high and holy place, and the 
Litany is sung, with the prayer God, ivho 
promdest for thy people in the place of the prayer 
of St Chrysostom. The Communion service is now 
begun, the commandments being omitted and the 
two collects for the king combined into one. After 
the Creed the sermon is preached, and then the king 
and queen take the oath. This was altered from the 
form in which it was taken by James II, and the 
expression Protestant reformed religion makes its 
first appearance ; the petition of the bishops also 
vanishes at this time. There were also noticeable 
changes in the consecration ; Veni Creator is sung, 
and then is said the consecration prayer Lord, 
holy Father, almighty and everlasting God, the 
exalter of the humble and the strength of thy chosen, 
but without Sursum corda and Preface. There is 
moreover a great deal of alteration in the prayer 
itself, which is made to include a blessing of the oil, 
and has the conclusion of the prayer said before the 
laying on of hands in the Order of Confirmation. 
The anthem Zadok the priest is retained. The king 
and queen were anointed on the crown of the head, 
breast, and palms of the hands only, the hands being 
anointed last instead of first as hitherto, the anointing 
being followed by the prayer Our Lord, Jesus Christ, 
the Son of God, and then the anthem Behold, God, 
our defender. Certain changes are also made in the 
forms of investiture ; at the investiture of the Sword 


the prayer Hear our prayers is slightly altered ; 
Receive this kingly sword appears as in the present 
rite ; at the girding Remember him of whom the royal 
psalmist did prophesy is also slightly changed ; there 
is no mention of any delivery of the Armill ; the 
form with which the Pall and Orb are delivered is 
much expanded ; the investitures with Ring and 
Verge precede the crowning instead of following it 
as hitherto, and the form with which the Verge 
is delivered is much enlarged ; at the crowning the 
prayer God, the crown of the faithful is more or 
less unchanged, but that following the crowning, 
God crown you, is considerably altered. Then comes 
a new anthem, Praise the Lord, Jerusalem. At 
this point is introduced an entirely new feature, the 
delivery of a copy of the Bible with a form consisting 
of two parts, Thus saith the Lord of old, etc., and 
To put you in mind of this rule and that you may 
follow it, we present you with this book, etc. Then 
comes the Aaronic blessing, followed by the four 
benedictions as in the order of James, and the 
prayer for clergy and nobles. After the Te Deum 
the king and queen are enthroned, the words 
Whereof thou art the lawful and undoubted heir 
by succession from thy forefathers being omitted 
from the form of enthroriisation Stand firm and 
hold fast. After the homage a final anthem is sung, 
which is really the introit out of place. The Com 
munion service now proceeds, the king and queen 
offering bread and wine, and the Bp of London, who 
was celebrant, saying the Secret, Bless, Lord, we 


beseech thee, these thy gifts. The king and queen 
then make the second oblation, the same prayer 
being used, God, who dwellest in the high and holy 
place, as at the first oblation. A proper preface 
appears again, By ivhom kings reign and princes 
rule, etc. Before the blessing three final collects 
are said, two of them from those in the Communion 
office, and the other that for the king and royal 
family used in the corresponding place in the Order 
of James II. 

The most interesting feature about the rite of 
William and Mary is its position in the Eucharist, 
a return to the old arrangement of the rite of 
Egbert, which has been preserved at all subsequent 

The recension of William and Mary is that which 
has been followed up to the present time. There 
have been certain changes, but none of a far reaching 

The anthem after the Recognition from Anne to 
George II, The Queen (King] shall rejoice, was at the 
coronation of George III and onwards sung after the 
crowning. In the Communion service the command 
ments were said from George II till Edward VII, but 
in the rite of George V, after the introit Let my 
prayer come up into thy presence, the Communion 
service begins with The Lord be with you, and 
proceeds at once to the proper collect God, ivho 
provides!: for thy people. From William and Mary 
till George III there was no introit, but from 
George IV till Victoria the Sanctus was used for the 


purpose. The declaration against traiissubstautiation 
had a place in the coronation oath from the time of 
Anne till George III, but since that time has been 
made (now in a milder form) before Parliament at 
the time of the king s accession. The anointing on 
the breast was omitted from motives of delicacy at 
the coronation of Victoria (and of the queen consort 
Adelaide), but has since been restored in the case 
of the king. The consecration prayer Lord, holy 
Father, who by anointing with oil (the old Deus 
electorum fortitudo} has commenced as at present 
since the time of George III, and still bears signs of 
the preface that once introduced it. From the time 
of Anne the sentence blessing the chrism has been 
omitted, but the chrism was certaiuly consecrated 
beforehand for the anointing of George II. The 
chrism used in the case of Edward VII was consecrated 
before the ceremony with the form used by Abp 
Sancroft, and King George was anointed with chrism 
of that consecration. The Armill was delivered with 
a form in the case of the four Georges, but is not 
mentioned in the rite of Victoria, though it was used ; 
it has since been delivered without any form. The 
vesting with sandals and buskius has been discon 
tinued since the time of George II. At the crowning 
the prayer God, the crown of the faithful was 
restored for Edward VII to the form in which it 
appears in the rite of James II, and the prayer after 
the crowning, God crown you with a crown of glory, 
which had been omitted from Anne till George III, 
restored for George IV and then again omitted, was 


brought back once more for George V ; also the old 
anthem Be strong, which had become an admonition 
from the time of William and Mary, became once more 
an anthem for our present king. At the delivery 
of the Bible only the second section of the form, and 
that shortened, has been used from the time of King 
Edward VII. Of the benedictions only two remain, 
the Aaronic blessing and The Lord give you a fruit 
ful country. The final anthem has been subjected 
to many changes. In the Communion service the 
benedictions of the king after the Secret have dis 
appeared and a proper preface, which was for some 
reason omitted from the rite of Edward VII, was 
restored to the rite of George V. 

Certain changes have also taken place in the 
coronation of the queen consort. From the time 
of Queen Adelaide there has only been one anointing, 
on the crown of the head. The prayer after the 
anointing, Almighty and everlasting God, we beseech 
thee of thy abundant goodness, has vanished from 
the time of Edward VII onwards, and the prayer at 
the delivery of the sceptre loses its first sentence and 
begins Lord, the giver of all perfection. The final 
anthem has also disappeared in the rite of King 
Edward VII. In the order of George V the Te Deum 
is ordered to be sung after the Blessing. 



As we have seen, there was in all probability 
a Prankish coronation rite in existence in the time 
of the Merovingians, and certainly in the time of the 
Carolingian kings, but it seems to have been very 
variable and without much stability before the tenth 

A group of orders of the end of the ninth 
and the beginning of the tenth century may be 
taken as representing the Prankish or French rite 
in its earliest and unfixed stage. 

Charles the Bald was crowned as king of Lotha- 
ringia in 869. The rite 1 begins with an address 
from Adventius, Bp of Metz, after which the king 
takes the oath to preserve the rights of Church and 
people. Another address is then delivered by 
Hincmar of Rheims, which perhaps is additional 
and exceptional. Adventius says the prayer Deus 
qui populis, and then follows a series of nine bene 
dictions said by different bishops, four of the 

1 P. L. cxxxvra. coll. 737-742. 


benedictions being identical with forms occurring 
in the second English recension. The unction follows, 
Bp Hincmar anointing the king on his right ear, 
from his forehead to his left ear, and on the crown 
of his head, with a form beginning Coronet te Deus, 
which does not occur again and is not to be con 
founded with the coronation prayer beginning with 
the same words. Hincmar then recites two bene 
dictions, identical with the last two of the second 
English rite, and the prayer Clerum ac populum, 
which here appears for the first time. The king 
is now crowned, all the bishops uniting, as in 
Egbert s order, to set the crown on his head, the 
form used being Coronet te deus corona gloriae, which 
is found in the second English order and in most 
subsequent rites. The bishops then give the Sceptre 
and the Palm, with a form commencing Det tibi 
Dominus velle et posse. 

The Mass which follows the coronation is the 
Mass for the day. 

A second example of the Frankish rite may be 
seen in that by which Louis II (the Stammerer) 
of France was crowned at Compiegne in 877 \ First 
of all the bishops ask that the rights of their churches 
shall be maintained, A vobis perdonari nobis petimus, 
and the king grants their petition Promitto et perdono 
wbis, a section which is found henceforward regularly 
in the French orders. Next is said the prayer Deus 
qui populis, and then follows the anointing, the 
king being anointed during the prayer Omnipotens 

1 P. L. cxxxvin. coll. 783 ff. 


sempiterne Deus creator et gubernator, which occurs 
in the second English order and in Hittorp s Roman 
order. The crowning then takes place with the form 
Coronet te Deus, and the sceptre is given with the form 
used in the second English order and henceforward, 
Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis. The order ends 
with a benediction consisting of fourteen prayers, 
among which occur all those used in the order of 
Charles the Bald. 

These two orders are very simple, and while the 
former is manifestly in an unfixed stage, the latter is 
the first recension of the definite French rite. It is 
noticeable that it presents many points of similarity 
with the second English rite, and this is probably due 
to the influence of the Roman rite. 

Louis II was crowned a second time in 877 at 
Troyes by Pope John VIII. The order used on 
this occasion 1 is quite different from that used at 
Compiegue, and is, as might be expected under the 
circumstances, somewhat Roman in character, but 
otherwise it is rather puzzling ; perhaps it was specially 
composed for the occasion, or else it belongs to the 
unfixed stage and may be classed with the order of 
Charles the Bald. 

The first prayer Deus cut omnis potestas et dignitas 
famulatur (an early form of the familiar Deus cuius 
est omnis potestas) occurs here for the first time 
and is found later in most French orders and in the 
English second and fourth recensions. Then follows 
Omnium, Domine, fans bonorum, also found in the 

1 Martene s Ordo m ; n. p. 216. 


second English recension, after which come the first 
ten of the benedictions which accompany the delivery 
of the Sceptre in Egbert. Then comes the prayer 
Deus inenarrabilis, which here first occurs ; and 
finally a prayer, evidently composed for the occasion, 
Oratio qua benedixit Apostolicus Johannes regem 
nostrum, and Spiritum sanctificationis quaesumus 
Domine, Hludowico regi nostro propitiatus infunde, 
which does not occur elsewhere. 

There are two examples of the coronation of 
queens in Prankish lands at this time, the earliest 
examples of the rite in the case of queens in the 

In 856 Judith 1 , the daughter of the Emperor 
Charles II, was married to Ethelwulf, king of England, 
and was crowned at the time of her marriage. The 
actual coronation prayers, which are inserted in the 
marriage rite, are as follows: Te invocamus, and 
then, preceded by Sursum corda and Preface, Deus 
electorum fortitudo, in which however are inserted 
a few lines proper to the occasion. The queen is 
then crowned with the form Gloria et honore coronet 
te Dominus, etc. 

The coronation of Queen Hermintrude 2 at Soissons 
in 866 is still more a special adaptation of the nuptial 
ceremony. There is first of all a very long allocution 
made by two bishops, after which follows the marriage 
prayer containing allusions to the royal position and 
duties of the bride, and then the queen is crowned 

1 P. L. cxxxvni. coll. 639-642. 

2 Ibid., coll. 727-731. 


with the words Coronet te Dominus gloria et honore 
et sempiterna protectione, qui virnt et regnat. 

In England there was no coronation of the queen 
consort at this time, aud the same was probably the 
case ordinarily in France. It will be remembered 
that in the Eastern Empire if an emperor was married 
after his accession his bride was crowned at the time 
of her wedding not only with the nuptial crown but 
also as empress. It is noticeable that both these 
coronations of Prankish queens took place at the 
time of their marriage, and it is most probable that 
there was some such adaptation of the nuptial coro 
nation (which was at this time used in the West) 
to the special circumstances of the royal bride. The 
occurrence of Sursum corda and Preface before the 
consecration prayer in the case of Judith is the first 
occasion of their use in this connection, but probably 
this too is due to the influence of the special Preface 
of the nuptial rite with which it is combined. 


In the tenth century there appears a definite 
French rite. This is represented by the orders 
contained in the codex of Ratold of Corbey 1 and 
Martene s Ordo vn 2 , which are very close to the 
almost contemporary second English recension, and 
manifestly derived from an English source. 

It begins, as does the rite of Louis II in 877, 
with the petition of the bishops, A vobis perdonari, 

1 P. L. LXXVIII. coll. 255 ff. 
a n. pp. 622-634. 


and the king s promise, Promitto vobis. Here in 
M. vn comes the Oath Haec tria 1 , which has been 
lengthened by the insertion of a promise to persecute 
heretics. Then comes the Recognition, two bishops 
asking the people if they will accept the king as 
the ruler, and Te Deum is sung, followed by the 
prayers Te invocamus, Deus qui populis and (alia) 
In diebus eius. In M. vn the investiture with the 
sword followed by Deus gut providentia and the 
Litany are inserted after Te Deum. Now comes the 
Consecratio regis, consisting of the prayer Omnipotens 
sempiterne Deus, creator et gubernat&r, during which 
the king is anointed, the anthem Unxerunt Salomonem 
being sung at the time of the anointing, (alia) Deus 
electoram fortitudo, (alia) Deus Dei Filius. There 
is no indication of the number of anointings in 
Ratold s order, but in M. vn there are five, the 
head, breast, between the shoulders, on the shoulders, 
and the bend of the arms being specified. The 
investitures follow ; the Ring with the form A ccipe 
anulum signaculum and the prayer Deus cuius est 
omnis potestas, and the rest of the regalia, Sword, 
Crown, Sceptre, and Verge,, are delivered in the same 
order and with the same forms as in the second 
English recension. After the investitures comes a 
series of six benedictions, all of which already occur 
in the orders of Charles the Bald (869) and Louis II 
(877), followed (item alia) by three more that are 
found in Egbert s rite. The king is then enthroned 

1 The word tria is omitted because with the addition there 
are now four promises. 


with the form Sta et ret ins, and last of all occurs in 
Ratold the charge as to the duties of a king, not yet 
in the form of an oath, but as in Egbert, Rectitude 
est regis noviter ordinati. In M. vn the enthronisa- 
tion is followed by two prayers, Omn. Deus det tibi 
de rore and Benedic Domine fortitudinem. 

As has been remarked, there is a very close 
similarity between this order and the almost con 
temporary English rite, and it is evident that the 
compiler of Ratold s order had before him one or 
more English orders : for in the consecration prayer, 
where in the English order the words occur, famulum 
tuum N. quern... in regnum Anglorum vel Saxonum 
eligimus, in Ratold s order, in the corresponding 
position, are found the words, quern... in regnum 
N. Albionis totius videlicet Francorura, and else 
where in the same prayer the words totius Albionis 
ecclesiam. Probably the passages occur in this form 
in Ratold s order as the result of an oversight on 
the part of the compiler. But this explanation is 
not altogether satisfactory, for in M. vn and in the 
order of Louis VIII (1223) the sentence in Ratold s 
consecration prayer ut regale solium vid. Francorum 
sceptra non deserat appears as ut regale solium 
Saxonum, Merciorum, Nordanhymbrorum sceptra 
non deserat, which can only be explained as being 
retained for the purpose of making a claim to the 
English throne 1 . A further proof of the English 

1 It will be remembered that Louis, then the Dauphin, was 
offered the English Crown and then driven out of England on 
John s death. He always afterwards claimed to be King of 

w. c. R. 7 


origin of this rite is the occurrence of the name 
of St Gregory the Apostle of the English. The 
clause Rectitudo regis of Egbert is also found here. 
But while no really satisfying explanation of these 
features in the French rite of this period has as yet 
been forthcoming, they at least bear witness to the 
influence of the English rite on the French at this 

The sacring of the queen is exactly like that 
of the second English order except that in the 
French order the prayer Adesto supplicationibus, 
which is said before the anointing, does not appear 
at all in the English. 


The French rite in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries was subjected, as was the English rite 
of the same period, to considerable Roman influence. 
Of this recension Martene s Ordo vi 1 , and the order 
of Louis VHP (1223) may be taken as examples. 

In this recension appear first the preliminary 
prayers as in the Roman order of Hittorp ; the 
prayer Deus qui scis humanum genus on his entrance 
into church, and on his entrance into the choir Omn. 
semp. Deus caelestium terrestriumque moderator. 
Between Prime and Terce (the king enters the 
church after Prime) the Abbot of St Re mi goes 
in procession to fetch the holy chrism. 

1 De ant. rit. n. 219 ff. 

a Godefroy, Le cerem. Francois, i. 13 (1649). Professor Hans 
Schreuer thinks that this order was never actually used. See 
Uber altfranzosische KriJnungsordnungen (Weimar, 1909), pp. 2 ff . 

The Anointing of St Louis of France 


The order begins with the petition of the bishops, 
A vobis perdonari, after which the recognition takes 
place and Te Deum is sung. The king then takes 
the oath in the old form, Haec tria populo christiano. 
Then follows a section directly taken from the 
Roman rite, and largely a repetition of what has 
already taken place ; the Litany, the king lying 
prostrate the while, an oath in answer to interro 
gations, and another recognition in the Roman form, 
Si tali principi, followed by a series of benedictions 
all of which occur in the Roman rite. 

For the consecration three choices are given 
as to the forms to be used 1 : 

(1) Dem inenarrabilis, during which the king 
is anointed, the anthem Unxerunt Salomonem being 
sung at the time of anointing. 

(2) Alia Oratio. Dem Dei Filius. Then the 
anointing of the hands with the form Unguantur 
manus istae. Then the prayer from the Roman rite 
Prospice Omnipotens. 

(3) Alia. Deus qui es iustorum gloria, and, 
introduced by Sursum corda and Preface, Deus 
creator ac gubernator. 

The unction of the hands here first occurs and is 
found henceforward in the French rite. It is first 
found in the English rite at this same time in the 
third recension, but in the English rite it always 

1 The conflation of three distinct forms of unction is self- 
evident. They can hardly have all been used, but here as else 
where the meaning of Alia is not clear. 



precedes, while in the French it comes after, the 
unction proper. 

The investitures of Sword, Ring, Sceptre, Verge, 
and Crown follow the order of Hittorp s rite, and 
the old forms used at the delivery of Sword, Ring, 
and Crown give place to the forms of the Roman 
order. The Sceptre is given at the same time as the 
Verge and has no special form of its own, here again 
showing the Roman influence. The investitures are 
followed by three benedictions derived from the 
Roman rite, and then follows the enthronisation, 
Sta et refine. In Martene vi the king takes another 
oath, Roman in form, at this point and Te Deum is 
sung, again shewing that there was already a tendency 
to transfer the latter to this, the Roman position, 
from its original place at the beginning of the rite. 

The consecration of the queen is different from 
that of the last recension. It begins with the prayer 
Adesto Domine supplicationibus nostris and follows 
exactly the ordo of Hittorp, with the exception that 
the form used at the crowning exhibits slight verbal 


There are two orders 1 given by Martene, vm and 
xi, which stand quite by themselves, and are not 
easily placed. Ordo vm is taken from an Aries 
pontifical, dated by Martene c. 1200-1300. The 
rite is short and shews Roman influence. It begins 
with Te Deum, after which the king takes the oath 

1 De ant. rit., n. pp. 2 27-229. 


in the later Roman form Profiteer coram Deo et 
angelis. The king is then presented to the metro 
politan by two bishops and the consecration begins 
with the prayer Omnipotens sempiterne Deus creator 
omnium, followed by Deus Dei fil ius, during which 
the king is anointed on the head. He is then 
crowned with the Roman form Accipe igitur coronam 
regni, invested with the Verge, Accipe virgam, and 
enthroned with the Sta et refine. After the en- 
thronisation is said either Deus qui victrices Moysi, 
a Roman form here first appearing, or Deus inen- 
arrabilis. The forms of the coronation of the queen 
are almost identical with those of the Roman 
pontifical of 1520. 

The Archbishop of Aries had no official part in 
the coronation of the French monarch. On the 
other hand, in strict theory, the emperor should 
be crowned at Aries as King of Burgundy, as well 
as at Aachen, Milan, and Rome ; it is possible there 
fore that this order may represent the rite used 
on such an occasion, though but few emperors were 
actually crowned at Aries. 

Ordo ix is still more puzzling. It is found in 
the Pontifical of Peter, Bishop of Senlis, who died 
in the year 1356. The consecration of the king- 
is introduced by Benedic Domine hunc regem, then 
follows Deus inenarrabilis, after which the king 
is anointed, during the Deus qui es iustorum gloria, 
on feet, shoulders, and arms. The forms of the 
investitures with Sword (after which is said the 
prayer Deus qui providentia, which however is given 


out of place), Ring, Sceptre (which is followed by 
the benediction of the Oriflamme), and Crown follow 
more or less the Romanized third recension, but the 
benediction of the Oriflamme is inserted among them. 
The anointing of the feet is unique, and there can 
be very little doubt that this ceremony has never 
had a place in any rite. The probabilities are that 
both these orders are quite unauthoritative and were 
never used. 


We come now to the final recension of the French 
rite, which is represented by the order of Charles V, 
who was crowned in 1364 1 . This recension, like the 
corresponding fourth recension of the English rite, 
returns to the older rite anterior to the Romanized 
third recension in so far as it is a conflation of the 
second and third recensions, containing nearly every 
thing that had appeared in all previous rites, and 
therefore much matter that was originally alternative. 

There is the short preliminary service. At the 
end of the prayers said at the king s entrance into 
the choir, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
Veni Creator was sung. The king enters the church 
between Prime and Terce, and while waiting for the 
arrival of the Sainte Ampoule Terce was sung. The 
rite begins as usual with the bishop s petition and the 
king s reply, and then follows the oath Haec populo 

1 The Coronation Book of Charles V of France, by E. S. 
Dewick, M.A., F.S.A. (H.B.S.) 


ckristiano, in which is inserted, in this order, a clause, 
which vanishes finally in 1484, promising to maintain 
the rights of the French crown (doubtless against 
English claims). Te Deum is then sung, though 
a note remarks that this should be sung, according 
to Roman use, after the enthroning. Dens inen- 
arrabilis is now said, and the Buskins are put on 
and the Spurs. Then follows the investiture with 
the Sword in the position it occupies in the Roman 
orders, with a benediction, and a conflate form com 
bining the old French Accipe gladium with the 
Roman Accipe gladium per manus nostras. Then 
follow the anthem Confortare and the prayers Deus 
qui providentia, Prospice omnipotens, Benedic Domine 
quaesumus hunc principem, and Deus pater aeternae 
gloriae. While the unction is preparing, a series of 
versicles and responses peculiar to the French rite, 
and beginning Gentem Francorum inclitam, and a 
collect are said. The Chrism was miraculous. 
Brought down from heaven by an angel for the 
coronation of Clovis, it was carefully preserved in 
the Abbey of St Rdmi, and brought in solemn pro 
cession from the Abbey at the time of the coronation. 
A tiny particle of the contents of the ampoule was 
mixed with Chrism. The Litany is now said, closing 
with the prayers Te invocamus, Deus qui populis, 
(alia) In diebus eius. Then comes the consecration. 
The king is anointed during the prayer Omn. sempi- 
terne Deus creator ac gubernator, which is followed 
by the prayers Deus elector um fortitudo and Deus 
Dei filius, the anthem Unxerunt Salomonem being 


sung during the anointing. He is anointed on the 
head, breast, between the shoulders, and at the bend 
of both arms. The king s hands are then anointed 
with the form Unguantur manus, and he then 
puts on gloves blessed with two forms adapted 
from the benediction of a bishop s gloves. The 
investitures follow ; the Ring, with a benediction 
and the old form Accipe anulum restored in place of 
the Roman form introduced into the last recension, 
and the prayer Dem cuius est omnis potestas; the 
Sceptre, with the usual form and the prayer Omnium 
Domine fons bonorum ; the Verge, with the usual 
form ; the Crown, with the prayer Coronet te Deus, 
and a conflate form combining the French Accipe 
coronam and the Roman Accipe inquam coronam, 
which is followed by Deus perpetuitatis. A series 
of benedictions are now said, all of which are found 
elsewhere. After the enthronisation with the usual 
form the anthem Firmetur manus is sung and the 
Roman prayer Deus qui mctrices Moysi is said, and 
finally the archbishop kisses the king, saying Vivat 
Rex in aeternum, and the cry is taken up by the 
Peers. The Mass, as in the English corresponding 
rite, is a Mass for the king, and before the Pax 
the benedictions Benedicat tibi Deus custodiatque, 
Clerum ac populum and Quatenus divinis moniiis 
are said over king and people. The king communi 
cates, as did the French kings always at a coronation, 
in both kinds 1 . 

1 The English kings however only communicated in one kind 
previous to the Reformation. 


The queen s coronation begins with the prayers 
Adesto Domine supplicationibus, Omn. aeterne Deus 
fons et origo, Deus qui solus habes and Omn. semp. 
Deus hanc famulam. She is anointed on head and 
breast as of old, In nomine, etc., and then follow 
Spiritus sancti gratia and Deus Pater aeternae 
gloriae. The Ring is given with the form Accipe 
anulum, as in the second recension, followed by 
Deus cuius est omnis potestas ; the Verge with the 
form Accipe virgam and the prayer Omn. semp. 
Deus affluentem. Lastly she is crowned with the 
form of the second recension, and the prayer follows 
Omnium Domine fons bonorum. 

After the sacring of the queen the benediction of 
the Oriflaimne takes place. 

This order remained in use, with small and 
unimportant variations, as long as the monarchy 
lasted in France. But the coronation of the queen 
was dispensed with for some reason. The last 
queen to be anointed and crowned was Marie de 
Me dicis in 1610, and probably a sacring took place 
in her case only because there was every prospect of 
her being left Regent and so virtual monarch. 




The rite by which Napoleon 1 was crowned stands 
by itself. The arrangement was that he should be 
crowned according to the rite of the Roman Pontifical, 
but at the last moment changes were introduced from 
the French rite itself. 

Napoleon came into church already clad in the 
imperial robes, the Pope having already heard Terce. 
According to the Roman order the metropolitan 
should, after certain questions, address the monarch 
on his duties, and then the oath should be taken. 
But in place of this Vent Creator was here sung, 
as in the French rite, and after the versicle Emitte 
Spiritiim and its Response, and the Whitsunday 
collect Dem qui corda fidelium, Napoleon took the 
oath. This was much modified, for the Emperor 
refused to confirm the Church in property which 
it did not possess, and indeed refused to recite the 
oath itself, simply saying Profiteor when it was read. 
Then followed, as in the Pontifical, Omn. semp. Deus 
creator omnium with the necessary alterations, such 
as imperatorem for regem, and the addition of et 
consortem eius whenever the Emperor was named. 
During the Litany the Emperor and Empress remained 

1 Proces-verbal de la Ceremonie du sacre et du couronnement 
de LL. MM. L Empereur Napoleon et I lmperatnce Josephine. 
Paris, An XIII, 1805. F. Masson, Le sacre et le couronnement 
de Napoleon, Paris, 1908. 


seated, and only knelt at the special petitions. Ac 
cording to the Pontifical the anointings should be on 
neck and right hand, but Napoleon ordained that it 
should be on the head and hands, and he was so 
anointed with Chrism with the prayers from the Ponti 
fical, Dem Dei films and Omn. semp. Deus qui Hazael 
super Syriam, the anthem Unxerunt Salomonem being 
sung the while. Josephine was anointed in the same 
places immediately after the Emperor with the prayer 
Deus pater aeternae gloriae. At the Mass, at the 
Emperor s request, a collect of the Blessed Virgin as 
patron of the Church was used instead of the proper 
collect. After the epistle the benediction and delivery 
of the ornaments took place. As the Pontifical has 
no forms of benediction of ornaments, the forms for 
the blessing of Sword, Rings, and Gloves were taken 
from the Ceremoniel fran^ois, and from the same 
source were derived forms for the delivery of Main 
de justice (Verge) and Sceptre, while forms for the 
benediction of the Orb and the delivery of the 
Mantles were composed for the occasion. The form 
for the delivery of Ring and Mantle were used in the 
plural for Emperor and Empress at once. At the 
time of the crowning the Emperor ascended to the 
altar and taking from off it the imperial Crown 
crowned himself, and then crowned Josephine, the 
Pope saying Accipe coronam regni and Coronet vos 
Deus corona gloriae. At the enthronisation the 
French form of the Sta et refine was used instead 
of the Roman, as affirming the independence of the 
sovereign. Te Deum was then sung, followed by the 


anthem Firmetur manus and the prayers Victrices 
Moysis and Deus inenarrabilis, and Mass proceeds. 
Neither Emperor nor Empress communicated. After 
Mass, while the Pope was unvesting in the Chapelle 
du Tre"sor, Napoleon took the constitutional oath at 
which the Pope had refused to be present, and was 
proclaimed Le tres glorieux et tres auguste Empereur 
Napoldon Empereur des franc, ais, sacr^ et introniseV 
The Emperor and Empress then proceeded to the 
Archevech^ whither they were followed by the Pope, 
during whose procession the anthem Tu es Petrus 
was sung. 




THE Roman rite of the coronation of kings is 
based on the imperial rite, but at the same time 
owes much to the various national rites which had 
been in existence some time before the genesis of 
the Roman. The earliest known Roman rite of the 
coronation of a king is that contained in the Ordo 
Romanus of Hittorp 1 , and is probably of the tenth 
or eleventh century. 

It begins with the preliminary prayer Omn. semp. 
Deus qui famulum and the responsory Ecce mitto 
angelum and the prayer Deus qui scis humanum 
genus as the king enters the church. This is all 
purely Roman. The order begins with the prayer 
Omn. semp. Deus caelestium terrestriumque, which is 
first found here, after which is said the Litany, 
another Roman feature. The oath is put to the 
king in interrogatory form, Vis sanctam fidem, etc., 

1 M. Hittorp, De dimnis ecclesiae officiis, etc., in Biblioth. Vet. 
Patrum, x (Paris, 1610), pp. 147-152. 


Vis sanctis ecclesiis, etc., Vis regnum, etc., and the 
king answers Volo. The people are then asked 
whether they will accept the king, and they answer 
Fiat, fiat. 

The consecration of the king is preceded by a 
benediction, Benedic Domine hunc regem, and two 
alternative forms of consecration are given. 

(1) Omn. aeterne Deus creator omnium, which 
is found in the rite by which Louis II was crowned 
in 877, and after this is said by another bishop 
Deus inenarrabilis, after which the king is anointed 
on head, breast, shoulders, and bends of arms with the 
form Ungo te in regem de oleo sanctificato in nomine, 
etc., and finally on the hands, Unguantur manus. 
Then is said Prospice Omnipotens, which appears in 
the earliest form of the imperial rite and in the 
Milanese rite of the ninth century 1 . 

(2) The alternative consecration consists of the 
prayers Deus qui es iustorum gloria, a Roman prayer, 
and Sursum corda, Preface, and the Deus creator 
omnium of the first alternative. 

The investitures follow ; the Sword with the form 
Accipe gladium per manus episcoporum; the Ring 
with the form Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum, 
both these forms occurring here for the first time; 
the Verge with the form, found in all orders but that 
of Egbert, Accipe virgam virtutis; and lastly the 
Crown with the form, here first occurring, Accipe 
coronam regni. The three benedictions which follow 
the investitures, Benedicat tibi, Clerum ac populum, 

1 See below p. 114. 


and Quatenus divinis, also appear for the first time 
in this order. After the responsory Desiderium 
animae the king is enthroned with the Sta et refine, 
which is found with variations in all orders except 
that of Egbert, the metropolitan gives the king the 
kiss of peace, and finally Te Deum is sung. 

At the consecration of the queen, after the prayers 
Omn. aet. Deusfons et origo, and Deus qui solus habes 
immortalitatem, she is anointed with the form Spiritus 
Sancti gratia, and she is then crowned with the form 
Officio indignitatis. 

The Mass prayers are not specified. 

There is a large number of Roman orders varying 
in places, but in general agreement with the Ordo of 


The Roman rite does not seem to have undergone 
the number of revisions to which the national rites 
were subjected, and what revision it did undergo was 
all in the direction of simplicity. 

The rite of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
is very close to that which is found in the present 
Pontificale Romanum. An order 1 of this period is as 
follows. The king is led by bishops to the metro 
politan with the request that he be crowned, and 
in answer to the metropolitan s question they declare 
that he is worthy. The king then takes the oath, 

1 G. Waitz, Die Formeln der deutschen Koniys- und der romischtn 
Kaiser-Kronung (Gottingen, 1872), pp. 87 ff. The order is from 
a Munich MS. of 1409. 


which has become direct, Ego N. profiteer coram 
Deo et angelis. The oath is rather shorter in the 
Pontifical of 1520. After the prayer Omn. aeterne 
Deus Creator (a variant form of Omn. semp. Deus 
caelestiitm terrestriumque) the Litany is said, the 
king lying prostrate before the altar. The metro 
politan 1 then anoints the king on the right arm 2 and 
between the shoulders with the prayers Deus Dei 
films and (alia in the Munich order) Omn. semp. 
Deus qui Azakel 3 . Mass is then begun, the Mass 
for the day being said with a second collect Dens 
regnorum omnium. In the present Pontifical of 
Clement VIII, the special collect is that of the 
Missa pro rege. The king is invested with Sword, 
Verge, and Crown; in the Pontifical of 1520, and that 
at present in use, after he has been invested with 
the sword the king brandishes it thrice, and in the 
present Roman order the form of the investiture 
with the sword is the old form with which it was 
girded on, Accingere gladium tuum. The king is 
then enthroned with Sta et amodo retine, Te Deum 
is sung, and finally after the responsory Firmetur 
manus, the two prayers Deus qui victrices Moysi and 
Deus inenarrabilis (this latter under an alia in the 
Munich order) are said. The Secret and Post- 

1 The rubric of the Pontifical of 1520 says etiara dicunt omnes 
pontifices ... dicunt etiam alias benedictiones. 

2 A rubric in the Rite contained in O.R. xrv takes into con 
sideration national sentiment by allowing also the anointing of 
hands, breasts, shoulders, and bends of arm. 

3 Waitz only gives the beginning and end of this prayer, but 
it is evidently this prayer that he indicates. 


communion are the same as in Egbert, except that 
in the present rite the Postcomm union is that of the 
Missa pro rege. 

The later forms of the queen s coronation have 
changed considerably. In the Pontifical of 1520, 
followed by that in use at present, the king presents 
his consort to be crowned, and a short Litany is said. 
Then comes a benediction and Sursum corda, Preface, 
and Deus honorum cunctorum auctor. She is anointed 
in the same way as the king with the prayer Deus 
pater aeternae gloriae, and then comes the crowning 
and, a new feature, investiture with the Sceptre. 

w. c. R. 




THE rite of Milan, in which city the Emperor was 
crowned as king of Italy, appears in its earliest form 1 
in the ninth century. It is very simple and short, 
being almost identical with the earliest Roman 
imperial rite. The whole consists of four prayers 
only ; Exaudi Domine preces nostras; the Conse- 
cratio Prospice Omn. Deus serenis obtutibus; the 
crowning form Accipe coronam; and lastly Deus 
Pater aeternae gloriae. Of these prayers the first 
three occur in the imperial rite of the Gemunden 
codex, and the last is found in Hittorp s order. 
It is also interesting to note that there is no mention 
in any rubric of the anointing, which, if it occurred, 
doubtless took place during the consecration prayer 2 . 
There is no reference to any coronation of the queen 

1 M. Magistretti, Pontificate in usum ecclesiae Mediolanensis 
necnon Ordines Ambrosiani (Milan, 1897), pp. 62-64. 

2 Whether there was any anointing or not in this rite depends 
on whether Charlemagne was anointed or not. If he was, then an 
unction, though not mentioned, certainly had a place in the 
Gemunden Order, and in this. See pp. 30 ff. 


consort. The Mass prayers are those which are 
found in Egbert s rite and are Roman. 


A second stage of the Milanese rite, as found 
in an order 1 which Dr Magistretti assigns to the 
eleventh century, shews an interesting development. 
It is much longer than the older rite and is an 
amalgamation of the Anglo-Frankish rite as repre 
sented by Egbert and the Roman. The whole of 
Egbert s order is found in it, the remaining forms 
being Roman. 

This order begins with the prayer Omn. aeterne 
Deus creator omnium. Then follows the Consecratio 
seu Benedictio regis, consisting of the forms in 
Egbert Te invocamus and In diebus eius combined 
into one, and the king is anointed with the form 
Deus Dei filius, (alia) Deus electorum fortitudo. 
The investitures follow in unusual order : the 
Crown, Accipe coronam regni licet ab indignis; the 
Verge, Accipe virgam virtutis atque aequitatis; the 
Sword, Accipe gladium per manus episcoporum ; and 
the Ring, Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum; all the 
forms being those of Hittorp s order. A series of 
benedictions follow the enthronisation, all of which 
are to be found in Egbert, and then comes the 
acclamation Vivat rex ille in sempiternum, the kiss 
of the nobles, the prayer Deus perpetuitatis, and 
the charge Rectitudo regis est noviter ordinati, all 
as in Egbert. 

1 M. Magistretti, op. cit., pp. 112 ff. 



The queen was also crowned in this order, but 
the MS. which contains it is mutilated and gives 
only the two first prayers, Omn. semp. Dem fons 
et origo and Deus qui solus, which are the first two 
prayers of Hittorp s order. 


A third recension of the Milanese rite may be seen 
in the order used at the coronation of Henry VII 
and his Queen, Catharina 1 , at Milan in 1311. This 
order represents the most elaborate stage of the 
Milanese rite and seems to have been subject to 
both French and Roman influence. 

The short preliminary service now first appears 
from the Roman rite. As the king enters the choir 
the prayer Omn. semp. Deus caelestium terrestriumque 
is said, and then the king s oath is put to him in 
interrogatory form. Then appears a French feature, 
the petition of the bishops A vobis perdonari, and 
the king s reply. The Recognition follows, the 
people answering Kyrie eleison. The Litany con 
cludes with the three prayers Te invocamus, Deus 
qui populis and In diebus eius, the second of which 
appears in this recension only of the rite of Milan. 
The consecration prayer is that of the English and 
French rites, Omn. semp. Deus creator ac gubernator 
(in which there still remains the allusion to the Saxons), 
the anthem Dilexisti iustitiam or Unxerunt Salomonem 
being sung during the anointing, which seems to have 
been only on the shoulders, and after which was said 

1 Pertz, M. 6. Legg., n. pp. 503 ff. 


Deus Dei filius. The Ring is given with the form of 
the last recension, followed by the prayer Deus cuius 
est omnis potestas; the Sword with the non-Roman 
form Accipe gladium and the prayer Deus qui provi- 
dentia; the Crown with the form Accipe coronam 
regni and the prayer Deus perpetuitatis ; the Sceptre 
with the form Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis and 
the prayer Omnium Domine fons bonorum ; and the 
Verge with the usual form. Then follow six bene 
dictions, of which the first two are found in the old 
French and English rites, and the others in the last 
recension. After the enthronisation an Orb and 
Cross is delivered to the king with a form beginning 
Accipe pomum aureum quod significat monarchiam 
omnium regnorum. The king answers Fiat to the 
charge Rectitudo regis, and then Te Deum is sung. 

The order of the queen s coronation begins with 
the prayer Omn. semp. Domim fons et origo, then 
follows the consecration prayer Deus qui solus, and 
the queeu is anointed with the form In nomine... 
prosit tibi kaec unctio, which is followed by Spiritus 
sancti gratia. The anointing is made on the 
shoulders. She is then invested with a Ring, which 
is an entirely new feature, the form Accipe anulum 
fidei signaculum s. Trinitatis and the prayer Omnium 
fons bonorum Domine being those of the French rite, 
from which this is probably derived. She is crowned 
with the form Accipe coronam gloriae, and finally 
are said the two prayers Officio nostrae indignitatis 
and Omn. semp. deus affluentem spiritum, the last 
of which is French. 



A fourth recension is found in a Milanese order 
of the fifteenth century , and is a revised and shortened 
edition of the last. 

On the king s entry into church Deus cuius in 
manu is said, and the oath follows at once as in 
the last order. The petition of the bishops has 
disappeared, and immediately after the taking of 
the oath Mass is begun with the saying of the 
Confiteor by the aforesaid Pontiff together with the 
aforesaid King, after which the Litany is sung and 
then follows the Introit. The collect of Pentecost is 
used, followed by Deus regnorum omnium. After 
the epistle the archbishop anoints the king on the 
head, the clerks singing meanwhile Dilexisti iustitiam. 
The consecration prayer itself is omitted, probably 
by an oversight, but doubtless it was the same 
as was used in the last recension. After the 
anointing come the prayers Dom. Deus Omn. cuius est 
omnis potestas and Deus Dei filius. The investitures 
with Sword, Ring, Crown, Sceptre, and Orb (under 
one form) are all as in the last recension, except that 
the prayers following the delivery of the ornaments 
are omitted, and the form of investiture with Sword 
gives place to the Roman form Accipe gladium per 
manus. After the investitures come three of the 
benedictions of the last recension, but in different 
order, and Te Deum. 

1 Magistretti, op. cit., pp. 121 ff. 


Alternative Mass prayers are given, either^those 
of the Ambrosian Missa pro imperatore as in, the 
order of Henry VII, or a combination of those of 
the Vigil of Pentecost, and of Pentecost according 
to the Ambrosian use. 

The order of the queen s coronation is identical 
with that of the last recension. 




THE earliest account of a German coronation rite 
is Widukind s description of the coronation of Otto 
of Saxony at Aachen in 936. Widukind 1 relates 
that Otto was first elected king by the nobles, who 
then swore allegiance to him and more suo made 
him king. The royal procession went to the church 
of Charlemagne, where it was met by the metro 
politan, who presented the new king to the people 
and demanded whether they accepted Otto as their 
king, on which the people lifting their right hands 
acclaimed him king with loyal cries. The Recognition 
over, the procession went up to the altar, on which the 
regalia were already deposited. The archbishop then 
invested Otto with Sword and belt, using a form 
beginning A ccipe hunc gladium, which, though shorter, 
is very similar to the corresponding form of the 
second English and French recensions. Then follows 

1 es gestae Saxonicae in Pertz, M.G.II. Scriptt. m. 437-438. 


the investiture with Armills and Chlamys under one 
form, which does not occur elsewhere; the Sceptre 
and Staff (baculus) are then delivered also under 
one form, and that again is unique. The king is 
then anointed with holy oil and crowned with a 
golden diadem by the Archbishops Hildiberht and 
Wicfrid together, but the forms used are not given, 
and the king is enthroned by the same bishops. 
Te Deum is then sung (divina laude dicta) 1 and 
Mass follows. 

This right is manifestly very far from being fixed, 
and is to be classed with the earliest examples of the 
Prankish rite. It is independent of the Roman rite, 
belonging to the Hispano-Frankish family. The Greek 
names of two of the regal ornaments, the Diadema 
and the Chlamys, are instructive. 

There is no reference to any coronation of the 


The German rite proper comes into prominence 
in the thirteenth century, and is the rite by which 
the Roman Emperor elect was crowned at Aachen 
as king of Germany. The Emperor was in theory 
crowned three times, first at Aachen as German king, 
secondly at Milan as king of Italy, and thirdly at 
Rome as Roman Emperor. In later times the German 
coronation often took place at Frankfort, where he 
was elected. The officiating Prelates were the three 
ecclesiastical Electors, the Archbishops of Cologne, 

1 Possibly this means the Laudes. 


Mayence, and Trier. The German rite changed 
hardly at all, for there is scarcely any difference be 
tween the order used at the coronation of Rudolf I 
in 1273, and that of Matthias II at Frankfort in 

The order used in the case of Rudolf I 1 is as 
follows. The consecrator, the Archbishop of Cologne, 
assisted by the Archbishops of Mayence and Trier, 
receive the Emperor elect at the entrance of the 
church, and the Archbishop of Cologne says the prayer, 
Omn. semp. Deus qui famulum tuum ; then is sung 
Ecce mitto angelum, and the two prayers follow, Deus 
qui scis genus humanum, and Omn. semp. Deus cae- 
lestium terrestriumque. These are the preliminary 
prayers of the Roman rite which seem here to have 
become part of the rite proper. Mass now is begun, 
and the Mass used on this occasion in the German 
rite is the Mass of the Epiphany. In Rudolf s 
order this collect was followed by the collect of 
St Michael. After the Sequence Litany is sung, and 
the Archbishop of Cologne puts a series of six ques 
tions to the king, to which he answers Volo. The 
first three of these are found in Hittorp s order; the 
fourth asks whether he will maintain the laws of 
the Empire ; the fifth whether he will maintain 
justice. The sixth demands whether he will shew 
due submission to the Pope. It runs thus : Vis 
sanctissimo hi Christo Patri et Domino Romano Ponti- 
fici et sanctae Romanae ecclesiae subiectionem debitam 
et fidem reverenter exhibere ? This question bears 

i Pertz, M.G.H., Legg. n. pp. 384ff. 


traces of the long struggle between the Empire and 
the Papacy, and is an oath such as the kings 
of England and France never took. At the end of 
the questions the king lays two fingers on the altar 
and swears. At the Recognition the people answer 
Fiat thrice. The Consecration follows, after the 
prayers Benedic Domine hunc regem, as in the order 
of Hittorp, and Deus ineffabilis. Here the German 
Order agrees with the English Orders in using the 
word ineffabilis in the place of inenarrabilis which 
always occurs elsewhere. At the end of this prayer 
the Archbishop anoints the king on head, breast 
and shoulders, with the oil of catechumens, saying 
Ungo te in regem de oleo sanctificato in nomine, etc. 
and then on the hands with the form Unguantur 
manus istae. The anointing is followed by a number 
of prayers, Prospice Omn. deus serenis obtutibus, 
Spiritus Sancti gratia, Deus qui es iustorum, 
Sursum cor da, Preface, and Creator omnium, and 
Deus Dei filius. Of these Spiritus Sancti gratia in 
the Roman rite follows the anointing of the Queen ; 
the others are an example of a conflation of conse 
cration prayers ; perhaps they were not all actually 
used, for it is difficult to imagine that so manifest 
a consecration form as a prayer with a preface should 
be used after the consecration had already taken 
place. The forms with which the king is invested 
with Sword, Ring, Sceptre and Orb, and Crown, are 
all Roman. The Sword is delivered with the form 
Accipe gladium per manus episcoporum,a,s in Hittorp s 
Ordo Romanus ; the Ring with the form Accipe regioe 


dignitatis anulum, as in Hittorp ; the Sceptre and Orb 
together under the form Accipe virgam virtutis atque 
aequitatis which is used in Hittorp s and other orders 
for the delivery of the Verge ; and the Crown with 
the form Accipe coronam regni, as in Hittorp s order. 
After the investitures the king takes the oath again 
in the direct form of the later Roman rite, Profiteer 
et promitto cor am Deo, etc. in Latin and German 
another example of conflation. Then the respon- 
sory Desiderium animae is sung and the king is 
enthroned with the Ita retine\ Here in the corona 
tion rite of Charles V the Archbishop of Mayence 
delivered a long address of congratulation in German. 

The coronation of the queen, which was performed 
by the Archbishops of Mayence and Trier conjointly, 
follows exactly that of Hittorp s order. After the 
Queen s coronation Te Deum was sung. 

The rite in the later days 2 hardly varied at all 
from this. Thus the orders according to which 
Maximilian I was crowned in 1486, Charles V at 
Aachen in 1519, Matthias IP at Frankfort in 1612, 
differ only in the slightest details from the order 
of Rudolf I. 

1 The Ita is almost certainly a scribal error for Sta. But error 
or not this form is found also in the orders by which Maximilian I 
and Charles V were crowned, though subsequently Sta et refine is 
restored in German Eites. 

2 See Panvinius and Beuther, Inauguratio, coronatio, etc., 
pp. 8 ff ., 81 ff ., 180 ff . The Order of the coronation of Maximilian 
II (1562), pp. 102 ff., is simply an account of the rite written down 
from memory. 

3 The form however of enthronisation at the Coronation of 
Matthias II begins Sta et refine. 


The Crown and the imperial vestments with 
which the Emperor elect was crowned in Germany 
were those of Charlemagne, which were most care 
fully preserved. An eye-witness 1 of the coronation 
of Leopold II at the end of the eighteenth century 
says that they were still in use, and that the Emperor 
adapted his coiffure and beard to the style of Char 
lemagne, and appeared like a man of the seventh (sic) 
century. During the singing of Te Deuni Charles V 
created a number of knights with the sword of Char 
lemagne, but in later days the creation of knights 
took place after the service. In England the creation 
of knights of the Bath took place the day before the 

i Comte de Bray, Memoires (Paris, 1911), pp. 97-117 



WE have very little material for the Hungarian 
rite. Martene gives us the order by which Albert II 
(afterwards Emperor) was crowned in 1438 S and 
Panvinio and Beuther give us a general account of 
the coronation of Matthias II (afterwards Emperor) 
as king of Hungary in 1612 2 . 

The Hungarian rite is very close to the later 
Roman rite. The king is presented to the metro 
politan by a bishop who requests him in the name of 
the Church to proceed to the coronation. After the 
usual questions and answers the king takes the oath, 
Ego Albertus profiteer et promitto coram Deo. Then 
is said the prayer Omn. semp. Deus creator omnium, 
which is followed by the Litany, and the king is then 
anointed on the right arm and between the shoulders 
with oleum exorcizatum, the metropolitan saying 

1 n pp. 234 ff. Ritus benedicendi et coronandi reges Hungarian 
qu% obtinuit dum Albertus V Dux Austriae in regem Huttganae 

2 Op. cit.,pp. 154ff. 


the prayer Deus Deifilius. The metropolitan begins 
the Mass, which is that for the day, the collect Deus 
regnorum omnium being also said. After the Gradual 
and Alleluia the investitures of Sword, Crown, and 
Verge take place, the forms used being those of 
Hittorp s order, and the king is enthroned with Sta 
et retine. Then is sung Firmetur manus, and the 
prayer Deus qui victrices Moysi is said or (Alia 
benedictio) Deus inenarrabilis, and Mass proceeds, 
the Secret and Postcommunion being those of the 
Roman rite of the fifteenth century. 

Panvinio and Beuther give us a few additional 
details. After the king is girt with the sword of 
St Stephen he brandishes it thrice. The Recognition 
takes place dramatically just before the coronation 
itself, the officiating Cardinal handing the crown to 
the Court Palatine who lifts it up, and shews it to the 
people, and asks according to ancient custom whether 
they bid the elect to be made king ; and the people 
answer Placet, fiat, vivat Rex. After the delivery 
of the Verge, the Orb and Cross is put into the 
king s left hand without any form. According to 
this account, after the enthronisation Laudetur Deus 
is sung, by which is probably meant Te Deum, which 
occurs here in the Roman rite, and they greet the king 
with the acclamation Vita, Salus, Felicitas, Victoria. 

The last coronation of a king of Hungary, that 
of the Emperor Francis Joseph in 1867, was according 
to the rite of the present Pontificale Romanum. 



IT was in Spain that the coronation rite first 
appeared in the West. The actual date at which the 
rite was first used in Spain is not known, but in the 
seventh century it was evidently well established. 
Thus in the Canons of the sixth Council of Toledo (638) 
reference is made to the oath which the king takes 
on his accession, in which he swears to persecute the 
Jews, and in the Canons of the eighth Council this 
oath is again referred to. Julian, Bishop of Toledo 1 , 
has left us a short description of the coronation of 
King Wamba in 672, at which ceremony he was 
himself present. He tells us that the king, standing in 
his royal robes (regio iam cultu conspicuus) before the 
altar of the Church of St Peter and St Paul in Toledo, 
according to custom made his oath to the people, and 
then on bended knees the oil of benediction is poured 
on his head by the hands of the holy bishop Quiricius 
and an abundance of benediction is manifested. Here 
we have the oath, the anointing, and the curious 

i Lib. de Hist. Gall., P.L. xcvi. coll. 765-766. 


expression benedictionis copia, which probably means 
a series of benedictions. There are no early Spanish 
forms extant, though there are slight traces of the 
rite and evidence that there was a proper Mass for 
the occasion in the old Spanish service books 1 . 

From the time of the Arab conquest until the 
reigns of Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain was little 
more than a geographical term. Three small Christian 
states, Aragon, Castile, and Navarre, maintained their 
independence against the flourishing Arab kingdom 
of Granada. The realm of Aragon was in itself a 
confederation of different states, and therefore in 
strict theory the king should, to obtain due recogni 
tion, be crowned in each state. But, probably owing 
to the inconvenience of au oft-repeated coronation, the 
rite seems to have been discarded altogether in Aragon 
by the fifteenth century. Nevertheless the order 
used at the coronation of Dom Pedro IV of Aragon 
in 1336 is still preserved. Castile was even more 
than Aragon a confederation of different states, and 
the king of Castile was king also of Le on, Galice, 
Toledo, Jaen, Murcia, etc. Here again, doubtless 
from considerations of convenience, the rite seems to 
have passed out of existence early, being replaced by 
a series of proclamations, and the taking of the oath 
by the new king before the Cortes. 

The third Christian state in Spain was the 
kingdom of Navarre. In this state, up to the fifteenth 
century, a coronation rite was used which possessed 

1 Liber Ordinum. Ed. M. Ferotiu (Paris, 1904). App. in. 
pp. 499 ff. 

W. C. R. 9 


even more clearly marked characteristics than the 
rite of Aragon. 

After the union of the Spanish states into the 
one Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella, the rite 
seems to have passed out of existence altogether, the 
custom of Castile serving for the whole of Spain. 

The order of the coronation of Dom Pedro IV of 
Aragon 1 in 1336, while shewing Roman influence, 
on the other hand exhibits, with the rite of Navarre, 
more clearly marked national characteristics than 
any other Western rite. 

The order of the coronation of Dom Pedro is as 
follows. The day before the ceremony the king 
entered the church in which he was to be crowned on 
the morrow, and kneeling down said a prayer for 
himself in Spanish. The Sword, Shield, and Helmet 
were then set on the altar, where they remained 
through the night watched by nobles, the king- 
reposing in the Sacristy. Next morning he hears 
Mass privately, and at the time appointed he is 
summoned by the archbishop and other bishops, and 
is arrayed in his royal vesture ; an ample linen 
camisa, like a Roman rochet ; an amice of linen ; 
a long camisa of white linen ; a girdle ; a stole over 
the left shoulder hanging before and behind ; a 
maniple on his left wrist ; a tunicle ; and a dalmatic. 
The king thus arrayed goes in procession to the altar, 
and the Litany is said, followed by a prayer for the 
king and the collect Actiones nostras. At this point 
comes a section peculiar to the Spanish rite, the 

1 de Blancas, Coronagiones, pp. 117 ff. (Jarago$a, 1641.) 


Benedictio super omnia arma regis ; first a general 
benediction, then the Benedictio super scutum, the 
Benedictio super lanceam, and the Benedictio super 
ensem. After these benedictions, if he is not already 
a knight, the king is invested with the Sword, the 
archbishop saying Accipe ensem desuper altar e, as in 
the Roman rite, and the king says a prayer for himself 
in Spanish. The Mass for the day is then begun, and 
after the Epistle the king takes the oath in the direct 
form, Nos N. profitemur et promittimus coram Deo 1 . 
The more important bishops now lead the king to the 
archbishop and ask that he may be crowned, as in 
the Roman rite, except that the petition is made 
in Spanish. The archbishop then says Deus in cuius 
manu corda sunt regum, and there follow three 
prayers under the heading Alia oratio which are 
probably to be regarded as alternative to the fore 
going, Omn. semp. Deus qui famulum tuum N.,Deus 
qui scis omne humanum, and Omn. semp. Deus cae- 
lestium terrestriumque. The archbishop then puts 
the questions to the king Vis fidem sanctam, etc., and 
asks the people whether they will accept him as king, 
as in Hittorp s order. The archbishop blesses the 
king with the prayer Benedic Domine hunc regem, 
and proceeds to the consecration ; after Sursum corda, 
Preface, and the prayer Creator omnium Imperator 
angelorum he anoints him in the threefold Name on 
the breast and each of his shoulders, and then says 

1 de Blancas states that Dom Pedro swore fidelity to the Pope 
(p. 5), but this does not appear in the oath in the coronation order 
of Dom Pedro. 



Prospice Omn. Domine hunc gloriosum regem nostrum 
serenis obtutibus. At this point under the heading 
Alia oratio are given a number of prayers Domine 
Deus Omn. cuius est omnis potestas, in a longer version 
than usual, Omn. semp. Deus quiAzahel super Syriam, 
Spiritus Sancti gratia, Deus qui es iustorum gloria, 
and Deus Dei filius. 

The king is now crowned, the archbishop saying 
the form Accipe igitur coronam regni, as in Hittorp s 
order except for a few words, and the king takes the 
Crown from off the altar and crowns himself, the 
archbishop saying Accipe signum glorias, diadema 
et coronam regni, as in the Roman rite of the corona 
tion of an emperor. The king then takes the Sceptre 
from the altar, the archbishop saying Accipe virgam, 
etc. ; then the Orb, the archbishop saying Accipe 
dignitatis pomum et per id, etc., which is the form 
with which the Ring is delivered in Hittorp s order 
with the necessary changes. After the investitures, 
under the heading Alia oratio come the two prayers, 
Benedic Domine quaesumus hunc regem, and Deus 
pater aeternae gloriae, and the king is then enthroned 
with the Sta et retine, the anthem Desiderium animae 
being sung the while. 

The queen s coronation now follows. After the 
prayers Omn. semp. Deusfons et origo, and Deus qui 
solus, she retires to the sacristy, where she is arrayed 
in a camisa romana ; a camisa of white silk ; a girdle of 
white silk ; a maniple on the left arm ; and a dalmatic. 
Then the Litany is sung, followed by two prayers for 
the queen, Praetende, quaesumus, Domine, famulae 


tuae, and Omn. semp. Deus hanc famulam, The 
consecration prayer follows, Deus bonorum cunctorum 
auctor with its preface, and the queen is anointed 
on head, breast, and on one shoulder, and after the 
anointing are said the prayers, Deus pater aeternae 
gloriae, and Spiritus Sancti gratia. The king now 
takes the Crown from off the altar and sets it on the 
queen s head, the archbishop saying the short Roman 
form, Accipe coronam gloriae, or the form of Hittorp s 
order Officio indignitatis. The king then gives the 
Sceptre into the queen s right hand, the archbishop 
saying Accipe virgam virtutis, and the Orb into her 
left hand, the same form being used as in the case of 
the king. The coronation of king and queen now 
over, Te Deum is sung, and Mass is begun. The 
Postcommunion is the old Roman form adapted, 
Deus qui ad defendendum aeterni regni evangelium 
regium Aragonum solium praeparasti, and before 
the Mass blessing are said Omn. semp. Deus qui te 
populi sui toluit esse rectorem, ami Haec Domine salu- 
taris sacrificii perceptio, this latter, which is the Post- 
communion of the Missa pro imperatoribus, being 
evidently a Postcommunion out of place. 

It will be seen that at this stage the Spanish rite 
had been considerably influenced by the Roman rite. 
On the other hand it still retained very ancient 
features. The Shield and Spear are among the 
insignia of the Eastern emperors 1 . The Crown is 
still called the Helmet, as in the Order of Egbert. 

1 Cf. Constantino Porphyr. de caer. i. 91 (coronation of Leo the 
Great), He was adored by all and held the spear and shield. 


The taking of the insignia by the king himself, and 
his investing the queen with her insignia, of which 
usages there are signs in some of the early Prankish 
rites, all are reminiscent of the old Eastern rite, as 
are the private prayers of the king himself, which 
have their parallel in the living form of the Eastern 
Imperial rite, that which exists in Russia at the 
present day. The use of the vernacular, too, is very 
noticeable. Indeed the parallels between their rite 
and the earlier Eastern rite raise the question whether 
there has been at any stage a borrowing by the former 
of elements from the latter. 

The coronation rite seems to have lasted longest 
in Navarre of all the Spanish kingdoms. Moreover 
the rite of Navarre, though very similar to the rite 
of Aragon, is still more peculiarly Spanish than that 
of Aragon. The general character of the rite of 
Navarre is seen in the description of the coronation 
of Charles the Noble in 1390, though unfortunately 
the actual forms used are not available 1 . The cere 
mony took place at Pamplona, and is begun by the 
Archbishop of Pamplona requesting the king, before 
you approach the sacrament of your unction/ to 
take the oath to the people which custom requires. 
The king accordingly laying his hand on cross and 
gospels, swears to maintain the rights and privileges 
of the people and to maintain justice. Then in their 
turn the nobility and gentry present with one voice 
swear to be loyal and obedient to the king, and lastly 

1 Jos Maria Yanguas y Miranda, Cronica de los Reyes de 
Navarm (Pamplona, 1843), pp. 192-199 ; Marlfene, n. pp. 236 ff. 


the officials of the towns, etc., take the oath of fealty. 
The king then proceeds to the chapel of St Stephen, 
disrobes, and is arrayed in white vestments designed 
with special openings to admit of the anointing. The 
Archbishop of Pamplona proceeds to anoint him 
in front of the high altar according to custom, but 
unfortunately what the custom is is not specified. 
The king after the anointing changes his raiment for 
precious vestments, and returns to the high altar. 
The archbishop then proceeds with the accustomed 
prayers, and the king takes the Sword off the altar 
and girds it on himself. He draws it, brandishes it, 
and returns it to its sheath. The king next takes 
the Crown from off the altar and sets it on his 
head, the archbishop saying the special form for the 
crowning ; and then in the same way he takes the 
Sceptre. Finally, with Crown on head and Sceptre 
in hand, he is raised aloft on a large shield by twelve 
barons and deputies of various towns, who thrice 
shout Real, real, real. Certain prayers follow, and 
Te Deum is sung. High Mass is then begun, the 
king offering certain palls of cloth of gold, and money 
according to custom. He makes his communion. 

The rite by which John and Blanche were crowned 
in 1429 is more or less the same 1 . The oaths were 
made as usual, and the elevation on the shield 
took place, both John and Blanche being elevated, 
according as the Gothic Kings of Spain were wont 

1 Geronymo Curita, Los cinco libros primeros de la segunda 
parte de los anales de la corona de Aragon. (^aragc^a, MDCX.) 
Tomo tercero, Libr. xm. c. li. pp. 185, 186. 


to be elevated, and before them certain Emperors of 
the Roman Empire. 

There are certain features of the Spanish rite 
which are very reminiscent of the Byzantine rite. 
For example, the Crown is called the Helmet. The 
Shield and Spear are among the regalia. The monarch 
is elevated on a shield. And again the king invests 
himself with the various regal ornaments as was done 
in some circumstances at Constantinople. On the 
other hand it is to be remembered that after all the 
Shield and Spear were arms in general use and 
common to all nations. The elevation on the shield 
at Constantinople was without doubt derived from 
the practice of the Teutonic tribes who furnished the 
Empire with so many of her soldiers, and may well 
have been the custom of the Goths. The self-inves 
titure by the king is curious in a land so much under 
the domination of the Church as was Spain from 
earliest Visigothic times. And there is no definite 
evidence of any derivation of the rite of the Spanish 
kingdoms from the rite of Constantinople. 



THE Scottish pre-reformation rite has not been 
preserved. It was not until the time of Pope 
John XXII that the kings of Scotland were crowned 
with an anointing, but in 1329 there was conferred 
upon the kings of Scotland the right to receive 
anointing and coronation by the sacred hands of 
a Pontiff, a privilege which most of the kings of 
Europe at that time enjoyed. There was, however, 
long before this time some sort of inauguration 
ceremony. The Ordination of King Aidan by St 
Columba has been mentioned, and there is reference 
fairly frequently in the Scottish annals to a Custom 
of the nation, some ceremony that took place at the 
accession of a king, but of the details of which we 
have no knowledge. It was probably of the nature 
of an enthronisation. Again we can perhaps obtain 
some information on a detail of the coronation rite 
in general from a question that came up over the 
inauguration of Alexander III in 1249. The king 
was eight years old, and a dispute arose whether the 


king should be knighted before he was made king. 
It will be remembered that in the rite of Aragon the 
king was invested with the Sword at his coronation 
only if he had not been knighted before. It would 
seem that originally the investiture with the Sword 
was no part of the coronation ceremony, but was in 
process of time taken into the rite from the order 
for making a knight. Perhaps, too, we may see 
in the obligatory oath of the people of the post- 
reformation Scottish rite a survival of a peculiarity 
of the old rite. 

Four coronations took place in Scotland subsequent 
to the Reformation 1 . 

In 1567 James VI was crowned during the lifetime 
of his mother, when he was one year old. The rite 
on this occasion was the old one, except that there 
was no Mass, and the officiating prelate was Adam 
Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, the king being duly 
anointed, and the usual ceremonies taking place. 
The sermon was preached by John Knox, and the 
Earl of Morton acted as sponsor for the king. In 
the oath the king swore to extirpate heretics, but 
this was probably in accordance with the old form, 
the only difference being that heretics were now those 
who did not hold the doctrines of the true Kirk. 

The second occasion on which a coronation 
ceremony took place in Scotland in post-reformation 
times was when Anne of Denmark was crowned as 
Queen-consort in 1590. This was the first occasion 
on which a definitely protestant rite was used. The 

1 J. Cooper, Four Scottish Coronations. (Aberdeen, 1902.) 


service was of appalling length and lasted from 
10 a.m. till 5 p.m. There was no singing of any 
kind, not even of a psalm, and the unfortunate Anne 
had to listen to six discourses, three addresses, and 
three sermons, the last being in English, French, and 
Latin. After these Mr Andrew Melville recited two 
hundred lines of a poem of his own composing. The 
Queen took an oath against Popery. She was then 
anointed on the breast, and the method of anointing 
must have been very unpleasant, for we are told 
that Mester Robert Bruce immediately puires furthe 
upon thois partis of hir breist and arme of quhilk 
the clothes were remowit, a bonye quantitie of oyll. 
Pressure had to be put on the Kirk to consent to use 
any anointing at all, and it was only when James 
threatened to procure a Prelate to perform the rite, 
if the Kirk was obdurate, that it was agreed to 
perform the obnoxious ceremony, and then on the 
understanding that it should be regarded as a civil 
and not as a religious act, and should be done 
without any form of words. After the anointing the 
Sceptre was delivered into her hands by Mr Melville, 
and the Duke of Lennox, receiving the Crown from 
the King s hands, set it upon her head. And so the 
rite was concluded. 

In 1651 Charles II was crowned as king of Scotland 
at Scone. The rite used l on this occasion was purged 
of superstition inasmuch as no anointing was used. 
Otherwise it is based to some extent on the old rite 
and probably owes something to the English-Scottish 

1 John Marquess of Bute, Scottish Coronations, pp. 140 ff. 


order used at the coronation of Charles I at Holy- 

Before the procession started, the king was 
addressed by the Lord Chancellor to the effect that 
his subjects desired him to be crowned and to main 
tain the Covenant and to defend their rights, and 
Charles having given the required promise the pro 
cession set forth. During the first part of the 
proceedings in the church the king occupied a chair 
by the pulpit, the regalia being deposited on a table. 
The ceremony began with a sermon of inordinate 
length, preached by Mr Robert Douglas, Moderator 
of the Assembly. Basing his discourse on the narra 
tive of the crowning of Jehoiada, the preacher dealt 
with many subjects, the meaning of the Coronation 
ceremony, the need of a reformation of their ways 
on the part of the king and his family, the freedom 
and independence of the Kirk and of the king s 
duties towards it. The sermon being over, the 
king swore to maintain the Solemn League and 
Covenant. The Recognition then followed, the king 
ascending a stage and being presented to the people 
at the four sides by the Lord Great Constable and 
the Marischal, the people crying God save King 
Charles II. The oath was then tendered by 
Mr Douglas, and the king swore to maintain the 
established religion, to defend the rights of the crown 
of Scotland, and to extirpate heretics. 

The oath taken, the Lord Great Chamberlain 
divested the king of his purple mantle in which he 
was arrayed from the first, and girt on him the Sword, 


saying : Sir, receive this kingly sword for the defence 
of the faith of Christ and protection of his kirk and of 
the true religion ivhich is presently professed in this 
Kingdom and according to the National Covenant and 
League and Covenant, and for executing equity and 
justice, and for punishment of all iniquity and in 
justice. This is based on the old form. The king 
was then crowned by the Marquis of Argyll, the 
minister praying that the crown might be purged of 
the sin of his predecessors, and firmly settled on the 
king s head. The homage follows, the Lyon king of 
Arms summons the nobles to come and touch the 
crown and swear faithful allegiance, and then takes 
place what is perhaps a feature peculiar to the old 
Scottish rite, the obligatory oath of the people. The 
Lyon king of Arms dictates the oath at the four 
corners of the stage, and the people holding up their 
hands repeat : By the Eternal Almighty God who 
liveth and reigneth for ever, we become your liegemen, 
and truth and faith will bear with you, and live and 
die with you against fill manner of folk whatsoever in 
your service, according to the National League and 
Solemn League and Covenant. The Earl of Crawford 
next delivers the Sceptre, saying : Sir, receive this 
Sceptre of royal power of the Kingdom, that you may 
govern yourself right and defend all the Christian 
people committed by God to your charge, punishing 
the wicked and protecting the just. This again is 
based on the old form. The king is then enthroned 
by the Marquis of Argyll with a very short form 
based on the Sta et refine, Stand and hold fast from 


henceforth the place whereof you are the lawful and 
righteous heir by a long and lineal descent of your 
fathers which is now delivered unto you by authority 
of Almighty God. The minister then delivers a 
word of exhortation, after which one by one the 
lords kneel and swear allegiance, and finally the 
minister blesses the king and closes the proceedings 
with a long address to the people. 


In 1619 Frederick Count Palatine of the Rhine 
and the Princess Elizabeth (daughter of James I) 
were crowned with a reformed rite at Prague 1 . 

The king goes in procession to the parish church 
of Prague, and arrays himself in his regal vestments 
in the chapel of St Wenceslaus. As he enters the 
choir from the chapel he is blessed by the Adminis 
trator (the officiating minister) and, preceded by the 
procession of the Regalia, goes up to the high altar. 
The Veni Creator is sung 2 , and -then is said a collect 
for the king, in Bohemian, after which the king goes 
to his seat and the sermon is preached. After the 
sermon a Litany is sung in Latin with special petitions 
for the king, then a lesson is read, and the Adminis 
trator says a prayer for the guidance of the Holy 

1 Actus Coronationis seren. Dn. Frederick Com. Pal. Rheni... 
f,t Dom. Elisabethae . . . in regem et reginam Bohemiae. (Prague, 
1619.) Acta Bohemica ([Prague], 1620), pp. 139 flf. The two 
documents do not always agree in detail. 

2 The Actus Coronationis does not mention Veni Creator, but 
the Acta BoJiemica definitely state that the hymn was sung. 


Spirit. Here comes the Recognition ; the Burggraf 
demands of the people whether it is their wish that 
the king be crowned, and on their signifying their 
desire, the king takes the oath in the vulgar tongue, 
after which another prayer is said. The Adminis 
trator then anoints the king in the form of a cross 
on the forehead with an explanatory form which has 
no connection with the old forms. The investitures 
follow, and the king is invested with the Sword with 
the form Accipe gladium Rex electe a Deo, etc., which 
is based on the old Catholic form ; then with Ring 1 , 
Sceptre, Orb or Reichsapfel, and with the Crown, the 
forms in all cases being new. The enthronisation 
then takes place, after which the Burggraf summons 
all present to take the oath of allegiance, during the 
taking of which all who could laid two fingers on 
the Crown, and all others held up two fingers, the 
oath being repeated in common. A long benedic 
tion 2 of the king then takes place. The coronation of 
the queen is now proceeded with. As she comes from 
the sacristy she is blessed by the Administrator and 
kneels before the high altar while a prayer is said. 
The king then asks the Administrator to crown his 
Consort. Litany is sung, with special petitions for 
the queen, and the lesson read before is read again. 
A prayer is said, and then the Administrator anoints 
her in the same way as the king was anointed. The 
Sceptre is delivered to her with a form which is based 
on the old Catholic form, and the Reichsapfel and 

1 The Ring is not mentioned in the Act a Bohemica. 
a This benediction is not mentioned in A.B. 


Crown with the same forms as were used in the case 
of the king. There is no mention of a Ring. A long 
benediction 1 of the queen follows here, and then the 
queen returns to her throne, and the proceedings 
close with the singing of Te Deum. 


In 1701, on the transformation of Frederick Elector 
of Brandenburg into the first King of Prussia, a con 
secration rite was provided for the occasion 2 . The 
ceremony took place at Konigsberg, and two court- 
preachers, one Lutheran and the other Evangelical, 
were appointed to act as Consecrator and assistant- 
Consecrator. On the morning of January 18th, the 
king, already vested in his royal robes, betakes himself 
to the Hall of Audience and there crowns himself with 
his own hands, and then proceeding to her apart 
ments crowns the queen. A procession then sets 
out to the Lutheran Schloss-Kirche, at the entrance 
of which they are met by the Consecrator and blessed 
by him, and they proceed to their thrones. A psalm 
(67) is sung and the Consecrator says a prayer at the 
altar, praying that the king and queen may receive 
by the anointing the gift of the Holy Spirit. A hymn 
is then sung, after which comes the sermon. After 

1 In the Actus Coronationis the benediction is spoken of as 
following Te Deum, but it is evidently out of place. The A.B, 
(which omit all reference to the Queen) state that the Te Deum 
was sung at the close of the ceremony. 

2 An account of the anointing of the First King of Prussia in 
1701. J. Wickham Legg, F.R.C.P., F.S.A. Archaeol. Jour. LVI. 
pp. 123 ff. 


the sermon Veni Creator is sung, and the Grand- 
Chamberlain hands to the assistant-Consecrator a 
vessel containing the oil of unction, from which the 
Consecrator anoints the king (who has in the mean 
time laid aside his Crown and Sceptre) on the forehead 
and on both wrists, saying : Let your royal Majesty 
receive this unction as a divine sign and token whereby 
God formerly by His priests and prophets did testify 
to the Kings of His people that He Himself alone is the 
most high God: and that He makes, sets up, and 
appoints Kings ; and let the Lord our God Himself 
herewith anoint your royal Majesty with the Holy 
Ghost, that you, as an anointed of the Lord, with a 
resolute, courageous and willing heart may rule and 
govern this your people and Kingdom ; and in good 
health and prosperity for many years and times to 
come may serve the counsel and will of your God : 
through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. The anointing 
is not in the form of a cross, but of a circle as being 
the most perfect figure known to mathematicians ! 
Then the choir sings A men, Amen. Prosperity to 
the king. Prosperity to the king. God grant him 
length of days. After this anthem the queen is 
anointed in the same way as the king with the form : 
Let your royal Majesty receive this unction as a 
divine sign and token that your Majesty has this 
anointing and appointment to your royal Dignity and 
Majesty from God ; who espoused you to your King, 
that he should have from you both joy and comfort : 
and the Lord our God anoint you moi-e and more wit!. 
His Holy Ghost, that you may be courageous and 

W. C. R. 10 


willing to glorify God and serve Him, for Jesus Christ 
our Lord. After which the anthem Amen, Amen. 
Prosperity to the Queen, etc., is sung. A fanfare is 
then blown on the trumpets, and the ministers make 
a deep reverence to the king and queen, and then 
the Consecrator blesses the king saying : Prosperity 
to the King, King Frederick, King of Prussia, and 
the Lord the God of our Lord the King say so : as the 
Lord hath been with him hitherto wards, so let Him be 
with him for the time to come : that his royal throne 
may daily be greater and greater. Amen. The 
anthem is then once more sung. The Consecrator 
then blesses the queen in similar terms, and the 
anthem is once more sung. Then the choir sings 
Glory be to God on high, and the Consecrator 
addresses the people, saying, Fear God, honour your 
King and Queen, and blesses the king and queen. 
An anthem follows, then a hymn, and then the 
assistant-Consecrator makes a prayer of thanksgiving 
for the erection of the kingdom and the anointing 
of the king. The usual blessing is given and the 
ceremony ends with the Te Deum. 


There is no evidence as to the coronation rite in 
the Scandinavian kingdoms before the reformation, 
but as these nations only obtained the privilege of 
a coronation ceremony comparatively late and at a 
time when the Roman rite had become predominant, 
it is fairly certain that the rite, when introduced, was 
Roman, with perhaps a few national peculiarities. 


In Denmark a coronation ritual continued to be 
used until the year 1840, since which date it has been 
entirely given up. Until then each Danish monarch 
was crowned on his accession. 

We have an account of an early post-reformation 
rite in the case of Frederick II in 1559. The descrip 
tion is unfortunately written in verse by the Poet 
Laureate, Hieronymus Hosius 1 , and of course no 
forms are given. The description given by Hosius 
is as follows. The king goes in procession to church, 
accompanied by the nobles by whom the regalia are 
carried. The church is decorated with red hangings 
for the occasion, and a throne set up in front of the 
altar. The king enters the church and proceeds to 
his throne, and the regalia are deposited on the altar. 
The king having made his private devotions, the 
officiating minister delivers an admonition to him, 
and then is sung Veni Creator or Veni Sancte 
Spiritus 2 . After the hymn, the king and nobles 
standing before the minister who remains seated, 
the Lord Chancellor presents the king as lawful 
inheritor of the throne, and demands that he be 
crowned, and the minister replies that in response 
to their demand he will proceed with the coronation. 
He then once more addresses an admonition to the 

1 Regis Friderici Coronatio descripta carmine ab Hieronymo 
Hosio, in Schiarditts Redivivus sive Rerum Germanarum scrip- 
tores rant, T. ni. pp. 65 ff . 

2 The metre requires that the hymn should be paraphrased 
and it is not clear which of the two is meant. Though Veni 
Creator is used in most orders, the other is found in the later 
Danish and Swedish orders. 



king on his kingly duties, and the king then takes the 
oath, in which he swears to preserve the peace of the 
Church, to defend the realm, and to maintain justice. 
An anthem is then sung praying for the king s pros 
perity. The minister then anoints Frederick between 
the shoulders and on both wrists, using a form which 
expresses the signification of the unction. After the 
anointing during the singing of Te Deum 1 (?) the 
king is arrayed in his regal vestments. The minister 
delivers the Sword, with an admonitory form which 
contains something of the ideas of the old form 
of the Church, and girds it on the king. He 
then addresses the people, warning them of the 
king s power and authority to punish, and the king- 
draws the Sword and brandishes it towards the four 
corners of the compass. The king is then crowned, 
the minister and as many of the nobles as conveniently 
may setting the Crown on the king s head together, 
and the minister delivers the Sceptre into the king s 
right hand, charging him to rule well, and the Orb 
and Cross into his left, with a long address, in which 
he explains the meaning of the ornament. The 
singing is then resumed,, and the king delivers the 
regalia to the nobles appointed, and returns to 
his throne. Homage is done, and the king, according 
to custom, creates eight knights. 

It will be noticed that this order is based on the 
Roman rite. The presentation of the king by the 

1 Turba Deum interea solemni musica cantu 


Probably this means that Te Deum is sung. 


Chancellor has taken the place of the presentation 
by bishops ; the king is anointed as in the Roman 
rite ; the brandishing of the Sword is Roman, and 
there is no Ring. 

There is no mention of the Communion, nor is 
there any reference to the queen. 

The later history of the rite is somewhat obscure, 
and by the nineteenth century it had been subjected 
to considerable alterations and omissions. As used 
(for the last time) at the accession of Christian VIII 
in 1840 1 it is very similar to the Prussian rite of 

The king and the queen come to the church in 
separate processions. Three bishops meet the king 
at the entrance of the church and conduct him to 
his throne during the singing of the Introit, and 
then three bishops meet the queen s procession and 
conduct her to her throne. The Introit over the 
Bishop of Sjaelland delivers a first address, and after 
it the Bishop Olgaard reads a lesson, which is ex 
pounded by the Bishop of Sjaelland. A copy of the 
Statutes and the anointing vessels are then deposited 
on the altar, and the Bishop of Sjaelland delivers 
another address with special reference to the Con 
stitution. The three bishops then kneeling before 
the altar, the Bishop of Sjaelland begins the Lord s 
Prayer. The king in the meanwhile lays aside his 

1 AUernaadigsf approberet Certmoniel ved Deres Majestcrter 
Kong Christian den Ottendes og Dronning Caroline Amalias 
forestaaende, hoie Kronings- og Sahrings-Act paa Frederiksbory 
Slot, etc. A. Seidelin, Copenhagen [1840]. 


royal ornaments, Crown, Sceptre, and Orb, with which 
he has entered the church in preparation for the 
anointing. First is sung in Latin Veni Sancte 
Spiritus, and y. Emitte Spiritum Sanctum Domine, 
B?. Et ren&vabis faciem terrae, etc., followed by the 
collect of Pentecost, Deus qui corda fidelium. 
A hymn is then sung, during which the Bishop of 
Sjaelland goes up to the altar, opens the vessel 
containing the oil, and consecrates it with a secret 
prayer. The king during the singing and the prayers 
has reassumed his ornaments. The Bishop of Sjael 
land now summons the king to be anointed, and the 
king goes up to the altar with his Crown on his head, 
the Sceptre in his right hand and the Orb in his left. 
Again the king lays aside the regalia and takes off 
his right-hand glove, while the Lord Chamberlain 
unfastens the clothing over his breast. Then as the 
king kneels before the altar the bishop, dipping the 
tips of two fingers in the oil, anoints him in the 
form of a cross on forehead, breast, and right wrist, 
using a suitable form. The king then resumes his 
ornaments. General Superintendent Callisen reads 
Ps. xxi. 2-8, and the Bishop of Sjaelland delivers 
another discourse, after which a hymn is sung. 
The Bishop of Sjaelland now summons the queen 
and anoints her on forehead and breast, using a 
suitable form ; a hymn is sung, the bishop delivers 
a last discourse, and the Hymn of Praise is sung. 
The king once more lays aside the regalia, and the 
bishop intones The Lard be with you, R?., And with 
thy spirit, and sings the special collect, and then 


immediately gives the blessing. A hymn is sung 
and, the king resuming his ornaments, the royal 
procession leaves the church. 

The degenerate nature of this rite is very evident. 
Like the Prussian order it has no investitures at all, 
only the central feature of the anointing remaining, 
and that is done apparently without any fixed forms. 
Indeed the rite is more or less a series of preachings. 


The post-reformation Swedish rite seems to have 
undergone very little variation. It was however 
discontinued at the accession of the present king 
of Sweden. 

The coronation of Carl XI on August 23, 1675, 
took place as follows 1 . The king goes in procession 
to the Domkirche, and passing to his seat in the 
midst of the choir kneels and makes his private 
devotions. A hymn is then sung, after which a 
sermon is preached by Basilius Bishop of Skara. 
The sermon ended, the king goes up to the altar, 
and taking off the mantle in which he has come to 
the church is anointed by the Archbishop of Upsala 
on breast, shoulders, and hands, the archbishop 
using a special form during the anointing. The king 
is then invested in the Royal Mantle. The accus 
tomed oath is then taken by him, after which, sitting 

i Kurtze Beschreibung wie Ihr. Ki migl. Majest. zu Schioeden 
Carolus XI zu Upsahl ist gekronet warden. Aus dem Schivedischen 
verdeutschet, 1676. Unfortunately none of the forms are given 
in this account. 


on a seat in front of the altar he is invested with the 
royal ornaments, which are brought down from the 
altar on which they have been deposited. First he is 
crowned, the king himself setting the Crown on his 
head. Next he is invested with the Sceptre, Apple, 
Key, and Sword, the archbishop using a special form 
at the delivery of each ornament. After the investi 
tures the king returns the ornaments to the lords, 
to whose charge they belong, except the Crown 
and Sceptre, and returns to his seat in the choir. 
A herald proclaims Carl has been crowned King of 
Sweden and no other, a fanfare of trumpets is sounded, 
and the choir sings Vivat Rex Carolus. The Litany 
is then sung by the bishops and congregation, and 
after certain prayers and hymns the ceremony comes 
to an end. The various nobles and officials then 
swear allegiance and the royal procession takes its 

The most noticeable feature in this order is 
perhaps the occurrence of the Key among the 
regalia, an ornament peculiar to the Swedish rite, 
and evidently an ancient peculiarity. It is possible 
that in this account the taking of the oath is 
wrongly described as occurring after the anointing 
instead of before it, for in subsequent orders it 
occurs in its proper place, before the anointing. 
Also the king is stated to have crowned himself, 
whereas in a contemporary engraving of the coro 
nation of King Carl Gustaf in 1654, the king is 
represented as being crowned by the archbishop and 
the Princeps Senatus, Count Drotzel, conjointly, and 


this has been the practice down to the last celebra 
tion of a coronation ceremony in Sweden. 

The coronation of a Swedish king in modern 
times may be illustrated by the order used when 
Carl XV and Queen Wilhelmina Frederika were 
crowned in I860 1 . 

The king and queen proceed to the church 
in separate processions. The king is met by the 
archbishop in his canonicals and the bishops in their 
copes, the archbishop greeting him with the words 
Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord, 
and the Bishop of Skara saying a prayer that the 
king may be endowed with grace to rule his people 
well. The archbishop and bishops then escort the 
king to his seat before the altar with the Royal 
Standard on his right hand and the banner of the 
Order of the Seraphim on his left. The Bishop of 
Strengnas and the other bishops await the coming 
of the queen, and when she enters the Bishop of 
Strengnas greets her with the words Blessed be she 
that cometh in the name of the Lord, and the Bishop 
of Hernosand says a prayer almost identical with 
that said at the king s entrance. She is conducted 
to her seat on the left side of the choir, and their 
Majesties kneel and make their private devotions, 
while the regalia are deposited on the altar. 

The archbishop begins the service singing Holy, 
Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, with which the 

1 Ordninyl vid Deras Mnji-xtiit< r l\<,nun<i Carl den Femtondex 
och Drottniny Wilhelmina Frederika Alexandra Anna Lovisas 
Kroning och Konungens Hyllnimj rid RUttdagtH i Stockholm, 1860. 


Swedish High Mass commences ; the Bishop of 
Skara recites the Creed before the altar, and the 
hymn Come thou Holy Spirit, come, is sung, and the 
sermon is preached by the Bishop of Gotheborg. The 
Litany is then said and after this, during the singing 
of an anthem, the king goes to his throne on a dais 
before the altar, with the Royal Standard borne on 
his right hand and the banner of the Seraphim on 
his left, followed by a procession of the regalia. 
There before the altar his mantle and princely coronet 
are taken off and deposited on the altar, and kneeling 
he is invested in the Royal Mantle by a state minister, 
and the Archbishop of Upsala reads the first chapter 
of St John. The Minister of Justice then dictates 
the oath to the king, which he takes, laying three 
fingers on the Bible. Immediately after the taking 
of the oath the archbishop anoints the king on 
forehead, breast, temples, and wrists, saying, The 
Almighty everlasting God pour out His Holy Spirit 
into your soul and mind, plans and undertakings, by 
whose gift may you so rule land and kingdom, as to 
redound to the honour and glory of God, maintain 
justice and equity, and be for the good of the land and 
people. The king then resumes his seat, and the 
archbishop and Minister of Justice crown him con 
jointly, the archbishop praying in a set form that his 
rule may be good and prosperous. The king is next 
invested with the Sceptre by the archbishop and the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, and the Apple is delivered 
to him by Count Hamilton, the archbishop using a 
set form in both cases. The Key is then delivered to 


the king by Major-General af Nordin, the archbishop 
saying the following prayer : God the Almighty who 
of His divine providence hath raised you to this royal 
dignity, grant you grace to unlock treasures of wisdom 
and truth for your people, to lock out error, vices, and 
sloth from your kingdom, and to provide for the 
industrious prosperity and increase, relief and comfort 
for the suffering and afflicted. Finally a naked sword 
is put into the king s hand, the archbishop saying 
a prayer that he may use his power well and justly. 
The archbishop then returns to the altar, and the 
king having his Crown on his head and holding the 
Sceptre in his right hand and the Apple in his left, 
a herald proclaims Now has Carl X V been crowned 
king over the lands of Sweden, Gotha, and the under 
lying provinces. He and no other. A hymn is sung 
and the archbishop says a prayer and gives the 

The queen is now led up to her throne before the 
altar. She is invested in the Royal Mantle, anointed 
on forehead and wrists, crowned, and invested with 
Sceptre and Apple, the forms used being those em 
ployed for the king and adapted to the queen. She 
is then proclaimed by a herald, and the choir sings. 
Prosperity to the Queen, and then part of a hymn, and 
the archbishop recites the last prayer as over the king. 
As in all other protestant rites there is no communion, 
only the first part of the High Mass being used in 
this case. After the coronation of the queen homage 
is done, and during the singing of the hymn Now thank 
we all our God, the royal procession leaves the church. 


The order used for the coronation of King 
Oscar II in 1872 is identical with the above. This 
was the last occasion on which a coronation rite was 
observed in Sweden. 


There is no sign of any ancient rite belonging to 
the kingdom of Norway, and perhaps none ever 
existed, for Norway was united with the kingdom 
of Denmark from the fourteenth century until 1814, 
and since that date until quite recent times with the 
kingdom of Sweden. According to the law of 1814, 
however, a separate coronation of the king as King 
of Norway took place in the cathedral of Trondhjem 
where the king was solemnly anointed by the Lutheran 
Superintendent, and crowned by the Superintendent 
and the Prime Minister conjointly. 

The following is the account of the ceremonial 
observed at the coronation of King Haakon VII and 
Queen Maud in 1906 1 . It will be observed that the 
order used is very close to that used in Sweden, 
though the forms used are differently worded. 

The royal procession goes in due order with the 
regalia to the Domkirke, at the entrance of which 
it is met by the Bishops of Trondhjem, Kristiania, 
and Bergen, and their attendant clergy, and the king 
and queen are greeted with the words The Lord 
preserve thy comings in and goings out both now and 

1 Ceremoniel red deres Majestatter Kong Haakon den Syvende s 
og Dronning Maud s Kroning i Trondhjem s Domkirke Aar 1906. 
Steen ske Bogtrykkeri, Kr. A., 1906. 


far ever. When they have taken their places the 
service begins, the Bishop of Trondhjem intoning the 
first line of the Introit hymn, of which the first verse 
is sung by choir and people. The Bishop of Kristiania 
then reads the Creed, and the Bishop of Bergen begins 
Te Deum, of which the first six verses only are sung. 
The sermon is preached by the Bishop of Kristiania. 
After the sermon a verse of a hymn is sung by a 
priest and choir antiphonally, and this is followed 
by the first part of the anthem. The king now 
proceeds to his throne, which is erected on a dais 
before the altar, the Royal Standard being held on his 
right hand. He is divested of the mantle which he 
has been wearing, it being laid on the altar, and he is 
invested by the Lord Chief Justice and the Bishop of 
Trondhjem in the Royal Mantle which has been lying 
on the altar. The Bishop of Trondhjem then anoints 
him on forehead and wrist with a special form, the 
king kneeling during the anointing. The king rises 
and takes his seat on the throne and is crowned 
by a Minister of State and the bishop conjointly, the 
bishop using a special form of words. He is then 
invested with the Sceptre by the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs and the bishop; with the Orb by a Councillor 
of State and the bishop ; and with the Sword by 
another Councillor of State and the bishop, the bishop 
using a special form at each investiture. The second 
part of the anthem is sung and part of a hymn, and 
the Bishop of Trondhjem says a last prayer for the 
king and then gives the blessing. 

The king now returns to his seat in the choir, 


with his Crown on his head, the Sceptre iii his right 
hand, and the Orb in his left. The third part of the 
anthem is sung, during which the queen passes to 
her throne before the altar. She is arrayed in the 
Royal Mantle, anointed on forehead and wrist, and 
duly invested with Crown, Sceptre, and Orb, the forms 
used in each case being adapted from those employed 
for the king. The fourth part of the anthem is 
sung and part of a hymn, and the Bishop of Trondhjem 
says the last prayer, which is slightly adapted from 
the corresponding prayer used in the case of the king ; 
he gives the blessing, and the queen returns to her 
seat in the choir. The President of the Storthing 
then proclaims the Coronation Act to be duly con 
summated. Two verses of the hymn God bless our 
dear Fatherland are sung, and during the last part 
of the anthem the bishops and clergy leave the altar, 
and, the anthem being finished, the royal procession 
takes its departure from the church. 



THE rite of the coronation of a Pope seems to date 
from the time when the western Patriarchs began to 
make definite claims to a temporal sovereignty. The 
rite does not appear till the ninth century, but probably 
existed in some form for a century before this date. 
Already in the Liber Pontificalis 1 it is stated that Pope 
Constantino wore during his visit to Constantinople 
a head-dress peculiar to the Roman Pope. This is 
called the Carnelaucus, and is evidently the original 
form of the Tiara. In the Donation of Constantino 
of the pseudo-Isidorian decretals 2 , in which the Papal 
temporal claims were first formulated, Constantino 
the Great is said to have granted to the Pope the 
sovereignty of the West and to have bestowed on 
him and his successors a special royal diadem, which 
is described as phrigium candido nitore splendidum, 
evidently the camelaucus under a different name, a 
closed head-dress something of the shape of a Phrygian 

i i. p. 390. 2 P.L. cxxx. 250. 


cap, and probably related to the Crown of the eastern 
bishop. Although the Donation does not mention 
any ceremony of coronation, perhaps one is implied 
by this claim that the Papal head-gear is a temporal 

In the ninth century the rite existed and is 
described in Mabillon s Ordo Romanus IX 1 . The 
ceremony never became so elaborate as a royal coro 
nation. The Pope elect, who must not be a bishop, 
enters St Peter s during the Introit Elegit te Dominus. 
His consecration as a bishop then takes place. Three 
special prayers are said for him by three different 
bishops 2 . The archdeacon then invests him with 
the Pallium (i.e. the ecclesiastical vestment), and he 
is enthroned on a specially prepared throne. The 
new Pope celebrates Mass himself, and after the 
Gloria in excelsis the Laudes are sung. When Mass 
is over he is enthroned upon the apostolic throne. 
Then he proceeds to the steps at the west end of 
St Peter s, and after the acclamation thrice repeated 
Domnus Leo Papa quern Sanctus Petrus elegit in sua 
sede multis annis sedere, he is crowned with the 
Regnum or Tiara, which is described as being white 
and shaped like a helmet. He then mounts a horse 

1 P.L. Lxxvra. 1006, 1007. 

2 The description is not clear, but the above probably repre 
sents its meaning. The text is et tenent evangelium super caput 
vel cervicem ipsius. Et accedit unus episcopus et dat orationera 
super eum et recedit, et alter similiter. Accedit tertius et con- 
secrat ilium. The word consecrat is curious, but these are 
evidently the three special prayers said for the Pope, of which the 
text is given in the later descriptions. 


and returns to his palace amid the acclamations of 
the people. 

The rite seems to have changed very little in 
the process of time. Ordo xn 1 , which is of the 
twelfth century, gives a little more information. On 
the Sunday after his election the Pope proceeds to 
St Peter s, and there before the high altar is conse 
crated bishop by the Bishop of Ostia and other 
bishops. The consecration over, the Cardinal Deacon 
of St Laurence places the Pallium on the high altar, 
whence the Archdeacon takes it and invests the Pope 
in it saying : Accipe pallium, plenitudinem scilicet 
pontificalis officii, ad honorem omnipotentis Dei et 
gloriosissimae Virginis eius genitricis et beatorum 
apostolorum Petri et Pauli et sanctae Romanae 
ecclesiae. The Pope then celebrates Mass. After 
the Laudes, the Epistle and Gospel are read both 
in Latin and Greek. Mass being finished, the Pope 
returns to his palace with the Tiara on his head, but 
there is no indication of any ceremonial crowning 
having taken place. 

Ordo xiv 2 of the fourteenth century is fuller. The 
Pope is now generally already a bishop at the time 
of his election. The newly-elected Pope proceeds 
to St Peter s and begins Mass. After the Confiteor 
he takes his seat before a faldstool between his throne 
and the altar, and there prayers are said for him by 
the Cardinal Bishops of Albano, Porto and Ostia. 
First the Bishop of Albano says the prayer : Deus 

1 P.L. Lxxvm. pp. 1098, 1099. 2 P.L. LXXVIII. pp. 1127 ff. 
w. c. n. 11 


qui adesse non dedignaris ubicumque devota mente 
invocaris, adesto quaesumus invocationibus nostris et 
huic famulo tuo N. quern ad culmm apostolicum 
commune indicium tuae plebis elegit ubertatem super- 
nae benedictionis infunde, ut sentiat se tuo munere ad 
hunc apicem pervenisse. Next the Bishop of Porto 
says the second prayer, Supplicationibus, Omnipotens 
Deus, effectum consuetae pietatis impende, et gratia 
Spiritus Sancti hunc famulum tuum N. perfunde ; 
ut qui in capite ecclesiarum nostrae servitutis mysterio 
constituitur, tuae virtutis soliditate roboretur. The 
Bishop of Ostia says the third prayer, Deus qui 
Apostolum tuum Petrum inter caeteros coapostolos 
primatum tenere voluisti, eique universae Christiani- 
tatis molem superimposuisti ; respice propitius quae 
sumus hunc famulum tuum N. quern de humili cathedra 
violenter sublimatum in thronum eiusdem apostolorum 
principis sublimamus : ut sicut profectibus tantae 
dignitatis augetur, ita mrtutum meritis cumuletur ; 
quatenus ecclesiasticae universitatis onus, te adiuvante, 
digne ferat, et a te qui es beatitudo tuorum meritam 
vicem recipiat. 

The Pope now receives the reverence of the 
Cardinals and Prelates present, who kiss his foot and 
face. He then goes to the altar where the Cardinal 
Deacon of St Laurence invests him in the Pallium, 
with the form already given. He then goes up to 
the altar and censes it, and returns to his seat, where 
he receives again the reverence of the Cardinals and 
Prelates. He then begins Gloria in excelsis, and says 
Pax vobis and the Collect for the day and says secretly 


for himself another prayer 1 . Then he returns to his 
seat and the Laudes are sung : 

Exaudi Christe. 

Domino nostro N, a Deo decreto summo Pontifici 
et universali Papae vita. 

Salvator mundi. ftf. Tu ilium adiuva (ter). 

Sancta Maria, R?. Tu ilium adiuva (bis}. 

Sancte Michael. R/. Tu ilium adiuva, etc., etc. 

After the Laudes have been sung, Mass proceeds, 
the Epistle and Gospel being read in Greek as well as 
in Latin. At the conclusion of the Mass the Pope 
goes in procession to the staging erected on the steps 
at the west end of the Basilica of St Peter. There 
the Prior diaconorum cardinalium removes his 
mitre, and sets the Tiara or Regnum, which is by 
this time adorned with three crowns, on his head, the 
people crying Kyrie eleison. The Pope then blesses 
the people and returns on horseback to the Late ran. 

This represents the final stage of the rite, except 
for one picturesque feature added in the fifteenth or 
sixteenth century. As the Pope leaves the chapel 
of St Gregory for his consecration, the Ceremoniarius 
lights a piece of tow on the end of a reed which flares 
for a moment and then goes out, saying, Pater Sancte, 
sic transit gloria mundi 3 . 

1 The Caerimoniale Romanum adds that this prayer is from 
the Order of the Consecration of a Bishop. 

2 Sacrarum caerimoniarum sive rituum ecchsiasticorum 
S. Rom. Ecclesiae Libri tres (Venetiis, MDLXXXH). Various details 
are given more fully here than in the older accounts. For the Rite 
as used at the present day see Grissell, Sede Vacante, Parker, 




It will be seen that the Papal rite is very simple. 
It is clear that the ceremonies, with the Laudes and 
other acclamations 1 , owe much to the Imperial coro 
nation rite of early times, hut have undergone very 
little change or development since the ninth century. 

i It is quite possible that the Laudes at the Papal Coronation 
may originally have been the development of the ceremonial 
reception of a new Bishop, such as obtained in France in early 
times see Martene, n. p. 29. If so, the forms have been assimi 
lated to the Imperial Laudes. 



THE coronation rite first appears in Constantinople, 
and was there a developed and religious form of the 
old ceremonies with which the accession of a new 
Emperor had always been observed. In the West a 
religious ceremony in connection with the accession 
of a king first appears in the seventh century in the 
Visigothic kingdom of Spain. Here we are told that 
the kings on their accession to the throne took an oath 
to govern justly, and were then solemnly anointed. 
But there is this noticeable point, that no mention 
is made of any crowning, and though the royal gear 
(regius cultus) is mentioned, there is no reference to 
an investiture of any kind. 

Whence did this Spanish rite come 1 There is no 
definite evidence which will permit us to say for certain. 
It may be that the idea of a religious ceremony of 
inauguration was borrowed from Constantinople. The 
barbarian peoples, as they became the new nations, 
imitated so far as possible the institutions of the 
Empire, and so it is possible that the Visigoths 


adopted their coronation rite in imitation of the 
imperial rite of Constantinople. But if this was so, 
it is no more than the idea of a religious rite of 
inauguration which they borrowed. We have seen 
that the central feature of the Eastern rite was the 
coronation, and there is no evidence of any unction 
before the latter part of the ninth century, while on 
the other hand the central feature of the Visigothic 
rite was the anointing, and there is no reference to 
any crowning in Visigothic times. It is true, again, 
that in the later Spanish rites of Aragon and Navarre 
there appear very special and peculiar features which 
we may be tempted to refer to a Byzantine origin, 
but as we have seen, these features will bear quite 
well another interpretation. Until we have definite 
evidence of any connection between the two, it is 
unsafe to derive the Spanish rite from the Eastern. 
The outstanding fact is that here in Spain we have, 
so far as the West is concerned, the beginnings of 
the coronation or consecration rite of kings, and 
that its central characteristic clearly consists of the 

In the middle of the eighth century we find 
France also using an inaugurating rite. In 750 
Pippin- le-bref was consecrated by St Boniface as king 
of the Franks, and at the end of the eighth century 
we find on two occasions, both of which were ex 
ceptional, Saxon kings being consecrated. 

The question now arises, where did the French 
rite, and the rite used in England originate ? We 
have no definite evidence and can only surmise. 


The fact that Boniface the anointer of Pippin was 
an Englishman, together with the fact that it has 
generally been taken for granted that the so-called 
Pontifical of Egbert is really Egbert s, and therefore 
belongs to the middle of the eighth century, has led 
to the tempting theory that the French rite was 
imported from England by St Boniface on the occasion 
of Pippin s consecration as king of the Franks. But 
there is no evidence in support of this theory, and 
above all there is no evidence of the existence of 
an Anglo-Saxon rite of this period for St Boniface to 
import into France. 

The consecration of Pippin is referred to, not as 
a coronation but as an unction. Of it we are told 
that Pippin was elected as king according to the 
custom of the Franks, and was anointed by the hand 
of Boniface, archbishop of Mayence of holy memory, 
and was raised by the Franks to the kingdom in the 
city of Soissons 1 . Here no formal act of coronation 
is mentioned. Pippin was elected according to 
the custom of the Franks, and it is possible that 
this same custom covers the unction, and refers the 
ceremony of inauguration back to pre-Carolingian 
times, but it is not probable, for everything points 
to the importation of an inauguration rite to give 
recognition to the new dynasty of Pippin. Possibly 
again in the expression was raised to the kingdom 
we may see some reminiscence of an enthronization. 
But the central feature of the rite is clearly the 
anointing, and this is the only feature mentioned 

i Reyinonis Chronicon, s.a. 750. (Pertz, M. O. H. Script. I. 556.) 


in the account of the second consecration of Pippin 
by Pope Stephen, where we are told Pope Stephen 
confirmed Pippin as king with holy unction, and 
together with him anointed his two sons, Charles and 
Carloman, to the royal dignity V 

And so we find the same feature, the unction, the 
central point of the rite both in Spain and France. 
It is natural to draw the conclusion that the French 
rite was brought from Spain and was of the same 
type as the Spanish, just as the other liturgical books 
of France and Spain are of the same type, commonly 
called the Gallican. The rite, when it was intro 
duced into England, most probably was brought over 
from France, for there was considerable intercourse 
between the Saxon and Prankish kingdoms, and 
some intermarriages between the Prankish and Saxon 
reigning families. 

To a Prankish origin may also probably be assigned 
the early German rites, such for example as that 
by which Otto of Saxony was crowned in the tenth 

In the year 800 Charlemagne was crowned by the 
Pope at Rome as Roman Emperor. For this purpose 
it was necessary to have a coronation rite, and hitherto 
no Roman Emperor had ever been crowned at Rome, 
though a Pope had travelled into France to conse 
crate a Prankish king. 

But this was the case of a Roman Emperor. We 
are told little of the details of the rite by contemporary 
writers. None of the Western contemporary historians 

1 Reginonis Chronicon, s.a. 752. (Pertz, I.e.) 


mention any anointing, though they all speak of the 
crowning. On the other hand a contemporary Greek 
writer, Theophanes, does definitely speak of the 
unction, but it has been suggested that he is here 
confusing the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor 
with the anointing of his son Charles as king of the 
Franks, which took place on the same occasion. 

The central feature of the coronation rite was his 
crowning, and this is a feature that seems to have 
been lacking in the Western rites for the consecration 
of a king, while on the other hand it is in strict 
agreement with the Byzantine procedure. Charle 
magne always pretended that the whole affair was 
unexpected by him, and that the Pope alone arranged 
the coronation and took him by surprise. But there 
can be little doubt that the whole business, except 
perhaps as to the details of the rite, was premeditated 
and arranged beforehand. Charlemagne was crowned 
as Roman Emperor, and therefore in theory was the 
colleague and the equal of the Emperor at Constan 
tinople. Hence it would seem natural that the 
ceremony by which Charlemagne was crowned should 
follow in essential details the rite used on such an 
occasion at Constantinople. It may be added that 
there is no mention of any anointing in the earliest 
forms for the coronation of an Emperor at Rome. 
It would seem, then, that the rite by which Charle 
magne was crowned, was, so far as the West was 
concerned, an entirely new rite, following in outline 
the rite used at Constantinople. 

Thus then, in the West, in the ninth century, we 


find two groups of rites, quite independent of each 
other, (1) The Spanish-Prankish rite, (2) The Roman 
Imperial rite. In later days these two groups speedily 
reacted on each other, and produced a definite type 
of Western rite. 

The forms of the first group, French and English 
(no early Spanish forms are extant), probably do not 
represent their earliest state. There is not only an 
unction but a coronation, and also a formal delivery 
of kingly insignia, in the English rite, of Sceptre, 
Verge, and Crown ; in the French rite, of Crown and 
Sceptre. It will be noticed that if the act of crowning 
was first observed in the West at the coronation 
of Charlemagne, it was very speedily introduced 
into the Western rite for the consecration of a king. 

There is no Roman coronation rite for a king at 
this date, but there is a Milanese rite of the ninth 
century, and with some such rite probably Berengar 
Margrave of Friuli was crowned at Milan in 887. It 
is noticeable that this Milanese rite for the coronation 
of a king is more or less identical with the imperial 
rite of the same date. It is very simple, the king 
being crowned and invested with a sword. This 
Milanese rite may perhaps be taken as representing 
the Roman rite of the coronation of a king in its 
earliest form. 

It is at the second stage of the rite where the 
interaction of the two groups of rites is most clear 
and evident. In the tenth century the second re 
censions of the English and French rite not only 
shew considerable developements and a much more 


fixed and definite form, but they are almost identical, 
and the French order bears certain marks of English 
influence. Whence did this elaboration come ? In 
the first place the English and French rites can be 
taken together from this time forward. Recension 
by recension they have been subjected to much the 
same influences and are very close to each other. 
This was only natural considering the closeness of 
the communications between England and France. 
Between the Saxon royal families and the Court of 
Rome there was considerable intercommunication, 
and on several occasions we hear of Saxon princes 
going to Rome. Of Alfred we are told that he was 
invested by the Pope at Rome with the insignia of a 
Roman consul, an investiture which the Saxons seem 
to have mistaken for a coronation rite ; and we are 
also told that the insignia were preserved henceforth 
among the royal ornaments. Of the Roman rite at 
this time we have no forms, in fact nothing between 
the simple forms of the first imperial recension and of 
the Milanese order and the elaborate order of Hittorp 
of the tenth or eleventh centuries. Yet whereas in 
the former of these there were investitures of Sword 
and Crown only, in the latter the king is invested with 
Sword, Ring, Verge, and Crown, and the unction is 
elaborate, being made on head, breast, shoulders, bends 
of arms, and hands. It is clear that influences have 
been at work in the intervening period. We know that 
France had great influence on the Liturgical books 
of Rome in the ninth and tenth centuries, and it 
would seem that here is yet another instance of this 


influence, and that the elaborations in the Roman 
rite were at some time adopted from France and at 
Rome reduced into order and fixity. Doubtless at 
Rome even the rite underwent some developement, 
but it is noticeable that after the time of the rite of 
Hittorp s order the rite at Rome returned to something 
of its earlier simplicity and drops out many of the 
elaborations which we find in Hittorp s order. Thus 
we may perhaps presuppose an intermediate order 
at Rome similar to Hittorp s order. 

In the case of Edgar of England, the English 
writers made much of his coronation in the year 973. 
It was an occasion which called for special pomp and 
circumstance, and much stress is laid on the mag 
nificence of the whole ceremony. It is likely that 
this is the occasion for which the second recension 
was composed, and the natural source of this develope 
ment and revision would seem to be a Roman order 
similar in character to that of Hittorp. This rite of 
the second English recension was adopted almost 
word for word in France in the order of Ratold. 

In England and France the third recension of 
each country is clearly influenced from Rome, to the 
extent even of replacing with Roman forms some 
of the forms of the old national rites. In the fourth 
recension in both lands there is a return to the older 
national forms by the simple means of conflating 
the second and third recensions, and this fourth 
recension marks the final form of the rite, except in 
so far as in England in its English form it has since 
been modified as circumstances have required. 


The earliest German rite, that of Otto of Saxony 
in the tenth century, is unfixed in character, and 
approximates perhaps to the earliest Prankish rites. 
There are investitures with Sword and Belt, Armills 
and Chlamys under a unique form, Sceptre and Verge, 
again with a unique form, and then after the anointing, 
with the Crown. The use of the word Chlamys is 
very striking and bears witness to at least a knowledge 
of Eastern imperial vestments. By the thirteenth 
century the German rite had been subjected to con 
siderable Roman influence, as would naturally be 
expected from the close connection existing between 
Germany and Italy. The unctions are on head, 
breast, and shoulders, and the investitures are with 
Sword, Ring, Sceptre and Orb, and Crown. The 
German rite changed very little after this date. 

The Spanish rite, as we have seen, contains much 
that is very ancient and also has been subjected by 
the fourteenth century to Roman influence, none the 
less preserving much of its ancient peculiar character 
istics. Unfortunately we have only few forms of this 
rite, and it was early discontinued altogether. 

The Roman imperial rite in its first state is short 
and simple. There are investitures with Sceptre and 
Crown only. No mention is made of the unction, and 
this fact, inconclusive in itself, accords with the 
absence of any mention of unction in the contem 
porary Western accounts of Charlemagne s coronation. 
The imperial rite served as a model for the order for 
crowning a king when need arose, as is evident from 
the fact that the early ninth-century Milanese order 


for the crowning of a king is almost identical with it. In 
the process of its developement the order for crowning 
an Emperor was influenced to some extent by the order 
for the crowning of a king, which had been subjected 
early to considerable outside influences. Then in the 
twelfth century we find in the imperial rite investi 
tures with Sword, Sceptre, and Crown ; a little later 
with Ring, Crown, and Sceptre. The Ring is quite 
non-Roman and has been introduced from the rite for 
the crowning of a king, into which it has come from 
outside sources. The Ring however soon disappears 
once more from both Roman rites. In the fourteenth 
century the investitures are with Crown, Sceptre and 
Orb (without a form), and Sword. In the sixteenth 
century, after which date the order has varied very 
little, the investitures are with Sword, Sceptre and 
Orb (under one form), and Crown. 
. We have seen that in the ninth century the 
Milanese rite was very simple and almost identical 
with the Roman imperial rite. Here at Milan the 
Roman Emperor was nominally crowned as king of 
Italy, before his coronation at Rome as Emperor. 
In the eleventh century this rite has become very 
elaborate, containing the whole of the matter of 
Egbert s order, and also much that is Roman. 
There are investitures, of Crown, Sword, Verge, and 
Ring, an unusual order, which are made with Roman 
forms. In the fourteenth century we find the unctions 
restricted to the shoulders only, and the investitures 
are of Ring, Sword, Crown, Sceptre, and Verge. In the 
last Milanese recension, that of the fifteenth century, 


the unction is made on the head, and the investitures 
are of Sword, Ring, Crown, and (under one form) 
Sceptre and Orb. Thus the Milanese rite was sub 
jected to the same early influences as the Roman, but 
never regained so much of its earlier simplicity as 
did the Roman rite. 

The coronation rite was introduced into other 
lands only at a time when the Roman rite had gained 
a position of special prestige, and therefore these rites 
seem to have been more or less Roman, and yet con 
tained some national characteristics. Of these we have 
only the Hungarian rite extant. Of the Scandinavian 
countries, and of Scotland no rite of pre-reformation 
date survives, but the post-reformation rites, which 
are based to some extent on the older rites, perhaps 
contain some of the older features, for example, the 
retention in Sweden of a key of knowledge among 
the Regalia. 

The general conclusions as to the inter-relation 
of the rites would seem to be as follows. There are 
in the West two original groups, both independent 
compositions : 

(1) The Spanish-French-English, derived from 

(2) The Roman Imperial, which was called into 
existence on the occasion of the coronation of 
Charlemagne as Roman Emperor. From this latter 
is derived the Roman rite for the coronation of a 

There seems to have been from an early date 
until the fourteenth century a continuous interaction 


of these groups upon each other, and beyond that 
date outside influences ceased to be exerted, and 
whatever developement may have taken place in any 
particular rite was due to natural and internal 

At this day in the West the rite is retained in 
England and Austria, that used in Austria being the 
order of the Roman Pontifical. 

The only other country, except Russia, in which 
a coronation rite survives is Norway. 




THE date at which an unction was introduced 
into the Eastern rite is a matter of uncertainty. 
There is no definite statement to be found that the 
Eastern Emperors were anointed before the time of 
the intruding Latin Emperor Baldwin I who was 
crowned in 1214, and the rite by which Baldwin was 
crowned was a Western rite. There is no mention of 
any anointing even in the rubrics of the twelfth 
century Euchologion. The first definite reference to 
the anointing of the Eastern Emperor is found in the 
account of the rite given by Codinus, in which we 
are told that he was anointed on the head in the form 
of a cross. 

Mr Brightman thinks that there was no anointing 
in the Greek rite before the twelfth century, but 
it is difficult to believe that this was the case 1 . 

In the earliest accounts of the Eastern Corona 
tions there is nothing at all said that can be in any 

i J.Th.S. 11. pp. 383 ff. 
W. C. R. 12 


way construed as implying any anointing. In the 
year 602 Theodosius the son of the Emperor Maurice, 
fleeing for refuge to the Persian monarch Chosroes, 
was received with great honour by the king, and he 
(Chosroes) commanded the Catholicos to bring him 
to the Church, and that the crown of the Empire 
should be set upon the altar, and then set upon his 
head, according to the custom of the Romans 1 . 
Since the detail of the crown being deposited on the 
altar is given in this passage, it is most improbable 
that all reference to an anointing would have been 
passed over, had such anointing been at this date 
the custom of the Romans. 

On the other hand St Gregory the Great, com 
menting on the anointing of Saul, speaks of the 
anointing of kings in his own day ; "Then Samuel 
took a vial of oil and poured it upon his head." 
This, surely, is signified by this unction, which is 
even now actually seen (materialiter exhibetur) in 
holy Church ; for he who is set at the head of 
affairs (qui in culmine ponitur) receives the sacra 
ments of unction Let the head of the king, then, 

be anointed, because the mind is to be filled with 
spiritual grace. Let him have oil in his anointing, 
let him have abundant mercy, and let it be preferred 
by him before other virtues 2 . 

Here the expression materialiter exhibetur is 
hardly compatible with figurative language. But if 
St Gregory is thinking of unction in a coronation 

1 Chronicon Anonymum in Guidi, Chronica Minora, p. 21. 
* In I Reg. Expos, iv. 5 (P. L. LXXIX. 278). 


rite, what is the rite which he has in his mind ? Is 
he thinking of the rite as used in the Spanish Visi- 
gothic kingdom 1 , in which in all probability unction 
already found a place ? Or is he thinking of the 
imperial rite of Constantinople ? It seems hardly 
likely that he should speak in such general terms 
with only the Spanish practice in his mind ; but on 
the other hand there is not a vestige of any other 
evidence in favour of any Constantinopolitan use of 
unction. It is true that the Prayer over the 
Chlamys would quite cover the use of an anointing, 
including as it does such an expression as \pia-ai 

Kara^tawrov TU> tXai u) dyaXXtaerews, but it is equally true 

that these words might quite naturally bear a merely 
metaphorical significance. 

It is not until the ninth century that we seem to 
get upon more solid ground, when Photius, in a letter 
written during his exile to the Emperor Basil the 
Macedonian (867-886), speaks of the xP^pa- xal 
XeipoOfviav /3a<riXeias *. These words, taken in 
connection with a sentence at the end of the same 
letter in which he speaks of himself as he at whose 
hands both he (Basil) and the Empress were anointed 
with the Chrism of the Empire (auros re KOL -J /Sao-iXts 
/JacriXeta? e^piV^r/), make it very difficult 

1 St Gregory s expression qui in culmine ponitur is some 
what unusual, and it may be noted that a similar expression is 
found in Can. 1 of the 12th Council of Toledo (681) etenim sub 
qua pace vel ordine serenissimus Ervigius princeps regni con- 
scenderit culrnen regnandique per sacrosauctam unctionem sus- 
ceperit potestatem, etc. 

a Photius, Epp. i. 16. 

12 2 


to believe that Photius is here using simply figurative 
language 1 . It is much more natural to take his 
words literally and to conclude from them that in the 
ninth century unction was already included in the 
rite of Constantinople. 

The references of Eastern writers to the unction 
of Charlemagne have already been mentioned. But 
since they all lay stress on the manner of that 
anointing no conclusion can safely be drawn from 
their language that unction was unknown at that 
time in the Eastern rite. 

There remains the consideration of the Abyssinian 
use. Abyssinia was cut off by the Arab conquest of 
Egypt in the seventh century from all communication 
with Constantinople, and there is no evidence of the 
use of unction in coronations at Constantinople at 
that time. It is on the whole, as has been suggested 
in a preceding chapter, more probable that the 
Abyssinian unction was an independent Abyssinian 
developement, more especially as at one time there 
were strong Jewish influences at work in that country, 
the effect of which remains to this day clearly 
stamped on the face of Abyssinian Christianity. 

As regards the West, we know that Unction was 
used at the sacring of the Visigothic kings in the 
eighth century and that it was used at the coronation 
of Pippin by Archbishop Boniface in the middle of 
the eighth century. In fact from the time of the 

1 Brightman considers that the language of Photius is meta 
phorical only and gives later instances of the figurative use of such 
words as XP O M" nn d Xf> /ieil> - Loc. cit., pp. 384, 385. 


original introduction of the coronation rite into the 
West, an unction seems to have been one of its 
features, and it is quite possible that it may have 
been an independent developement in the West. But 
is it so easy to think of the unction in the Eastern 
coronation rite as a feature borrowed from the 

So we must leave it at this, that while an unction 
was used in Spain in the seventh century, and is 
found in all Western coronation rites, on the other 
hand with regard to the East we can only say that it 
appears probably in the ninth century in the case of 
Basil the Macedonian, whatever may be the proba 
bilities or possibilities of any earlier use of it. 


All the Western coronation vestments are ulti 
mately derived from the Byzantine use. The 
imperial Byzantine vestments 1 seem to be elabora 
tions of the older official Roman dress. They appear 
to have become more or less fixed by the ninth 
century, and comprised the following : 

1. The purple Buskins or Leggings. 

2. The scarlet Shoes, originally a senatorial 

3. The Tunic or x i v, probably white. 

4. The Dibetesion or Sakkos, a gorgeous tunic 
very much like a dalmatic. 

1 Brightmau, Byzantine Imp. Coronation, in J. Th. St. 11. 
pp. 391f. and The Coronation Order and the Regal Vestments, 
in The Pilot, vi. p. 136. 


5. The Loros or Diadema, which was originally 
a folded toga picta, but became a long embroidered 
scarf folded about the neck and body with one end 
pendent in front and the other over the left arm. 

6. The Chlamys, or imperial purple, by the 
thirteenth century a great cloak powdered with eagles 
and fastened on the right shoulder. In the time of 
Constantine Porphyrogenitus the Loros and Chlamys 
were not worn together, perhaps for the sake of con 
venience, but they were so worn together in the 
thirteenth century, though by the fourteenth century 
the Chlamys was again abandoned and the Sakkos 
sufficed for the imperial purple. 

There can be no doubt that the Western regal 
and imperial vestments are derived from the Eastern 
robes, for there is a close similarity between the two, 
though in process of time some of the least con 
venient have been gradually abandoned. 

The English vestments are as follows 1 : 

1. Buskins and Hose, now no longer used. 

2. Gloves. 

3. The Colobium sindonis, a linen vestment of 
the shape of an alb, the Eastern XLTU>V. This 
vestment, which had sleeves up to the time of 
James II, is now sleeveless, and is also now divided 
at the side so that it can be put on the monarch, 
without being put over his head, and fastened on the 

1 See the various English orders, most of which are given 
in L. G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records. 


4. The Tunicle or Dalmatic, which is the vest 
ment worn by subdeacon, deacon and bishop at mass. 
This again has in modern times been divided down 
the middle for convenience in putting on. This 
vestment is the Eastern Sakkos. 

5. The Armill, or Armills. This is very like a 
stole, and is put round the neck and fastened at the 
elbows. It is the Eastern Loros 1 . There is however 
some confusion in the name of this ornament, for it 
is sometimes used in the plural, and perhaps in that 
case of the royal Bracelets, which have been long 

6. The imperial Mantle or Pall is more like a 
cope than anything else. It is the Eastern Chlamys. 

The German imperial vesture was much the same. 
The Emperor Charles V was arrayed at his coronation 
as follows 2 : 

1. The Tunica talaris, a close undergarment of 

2. The Alba camisia, a rochet or alb-like vest 
ment with sleeves. 

3. The Dalmatic. 

4. The Armill, like but broader than a stole. 

5. The purple Pallium. 

6. Red Gloves. 

7. Scarlet Buskins. 

1 See below, p. 187. 

2 Bock, Die Kleinodien des heil. rijmischen Reicfies deutsch. 
Nation. In the plate of the Emperor Charles V the Dalmatic 
has been omitted. Also it is to be doubted whether the Emperor 
wore the Armill crosswise like a stole as there represented. 


It may be mentioned that the Greek word 
Chlamys is actually used for the imperial mantle in 
the account of the coronation of Otto of Saxony in 
the tenth century. 

The French vestments as used at the coronation 
of Charles V of France are described in the order 
used on the occasion 1 . 

1. A Tunica serica, which is apparently part of 
his ordinary habit and is the tunica talaris. 

2. Tunica, in modum tunicalis quo utuntur 

3. Sokkos, fere in modum cappe. 

4. Buskins. 

5. Gloves. 

The ornaments of the kings of Aragon were 2 : 

1. An ample Camisa like a Roman rochet, 
evidently an undergarment. 

2. An Amice of linen. 

3. A long Camisa of white linen. 

4. A Girdle. 

5. A Maniple on the left wrist. 

6. A Stole over the left shoulder hanging before 
and behind, i.e., an Armill. 

7. A Tunicle. 

8. A Dalmatic. 

The Regalia in the East seem to have consisted 
of the Crown and the Shield and Spear. Symeon of 
Thessalonica (c. 1400) also speaks of a Rod of light 
wood, and also of the Akakia among the imperial 

1 Dewick, The Coronation Boole of Charles V of France. 

2 de Blancas, Coronagiones. 


ornaments. The Akakia was a purple bag containing 
earth which was put into the hand of the Emperor as 
a reminder of corruptibility, of which the Western 
Orb is perhaps the descendant 1 . The Crown was 
shaped like a helmet and partially closed in at the 

The Western Regalia comprise : 

1. The Crown, called still among the Anglo- 
Saxons Stemma or Galeus, sufficiently shewing the 
provenance of this ornament. The Roman imperial 
Crown seems to have been much after the shape of 
the Eastern Sternma. The English Crown is a fairly 
narrow band surmounted by a cross. 

2. The Sceptre. 

3. The Verge or Staff. In France the Staff was 
a rod of ivory surmounted by an open hand and 
called the Main de justice. 

4. The Orb, which is generally held to be 
another form of the Sceptre, but is more probably an 
elaborated form of the Greek Akakia. The Orb was 
given at first without any form, but in the English 
use a form has been introduced comparatively lately. 

5. The Ring, which was placed on the medi 
cinal, or marriage finger. 

6. The Sword and Spurs, which perhaps origin 
ally belonged to the order for the making of a knight 
which was early incorporated into the coronation 

1 It is usually held that the Orb is another form of the Sceptre. 
In rites in which it is referred to it is generally given without 
any accompanying form. It is variously named the Orh, Pome, 
Apfel or Eeichsapfel. 


rite. It may be noticed that in the conservative 
rite of Aragon the Shield and Spear, the arms of 
the Eastern emperors, still appear among the regal 
weapons as well as the sword. 

The question arises as to how far the vestments 
mentioned in the above lists are to be regarded as 
ecclesiastical. Many have seen in them an ecclesias 
tical vesture stamping the monarch after his anointing 
as at least a quasi-ecclesiastical person. The 
vestments are undoubtedly very similar to the mass 
vestments, and this similarity was noticed and 
remarked upon even in the middle ages. Both in 
England and France the appearance of the king 
vested in the royal vestments has been compared to a 
bishop vested for mass, and to the ordinary beholder 
this comparison would most naturally occur. But as 
a matter of fact, if one vesture is to be regarded as 
descended from another, it is the episcopal which is 
descended from the imperial, and not vice versa. 
The true fact however seems to be that both are 
descended from a common ancestor. The ecclesias 
tical vestments represent a conservative retention on 
the part of the Church of a vesture which the clergy 
and laity once used in common. The Church has 
retained the old lay vestments, and has elaborated 
them in the process of time. The imperial vest 
ments are derived from the official dress of the 
Roman republic, again elaborated. The official dress 
of the Roman republic was itself an elaboration of the 
ordinary dress of the Roman citizen. Of ecclesias 
tical vestments the chasuble and cope seem to have 


been derived from the ordinary lay vesture, while on 
the other hand the dalmatic and pallium and perhaps 
the stole are derived from the official dress, and have 
always appeared in a gorgeous form among the vest 
ments of the Eastern Emperor. The dalmatic, 
familiar in the West as the dress of the deacon, and 
originally granted as a privilege to the deacons of 
the Roman Church only, is in the East the distinctive 
vestment of the bishop. The pallium or loros, once 
the badge of the Roman Consul, and later of the 
Emperor, granted at first by imperial permission to 
the most eminent prelates of the Church, still appears 
as the royal Armill on the one hand, and as a 
distinguishing badge of a bishop in the East, while 
in the West it has long been granted by the Pope 
chiefly to metropolitans as a mark of honour and a 
symbol of jurisdiction. 

Thus really the episcopal and the imperial vest 
ments are cousins : and just as the rites, outwardly 
similar, of the consecration of a bishop and the 
consecration of a king, tended to be assimilated, so 
the vestures, in their very origin derived ultimately 
from the same source, shewed a natural tendency to 
influence each other : and it is doubtless this 
similarity of rite and vesture that is the chief reason 
for the theory that has been held by some, that the 
anointed monarch is a quasi-ecclesiastical personage, 
or to use technical language, a Mixta Persona. 



THERE remains to be considered the meaning of 
the rite of the consecration or coronation of a king. 
We have seen that an exalted idea of kingship was 
more or less universal before the times of Christianity. 
In pre-Christian times the king was regarded as far 
above ordinary men by virtue of his office, which 
embraced priestly functions, and was looked upon as 
being the vice-gerent of God. In the Roman Empire 
from the time of Julius and Augustus the Emperor 
was also Pontifex Maximus, the spiritual as well as 
the civil head of the Empire ; his effigy was sacred ; 
temples were erected to him or to his Genius ; during 
his lifetime he received semi-divine honours, and on 
his death he was solemnly enrolled among the com 
pany of the gods. The autocrat of the world was 
the representative of God on earth. The Roman 
Empire itself was mysterious, sacred, and eternal. 
The Christians also accepted this theory and fol 
lowed St Paul s teaching that the powers that be 
are ordained by God, equally with their non-Christian 
fellow-citizens regarding Caesar in some sense at least 


as the representative of divine law and order in the 
natural world, and as being therefore the vice-gerent 
of God 1 . When the Emperors became Christian the 
Church naturally found herself able to accept this 
doctrine with enthusiasm and without restriction, 
and the Emperor was acknowledged as spiritual as 
well as civil ruler. Thus we find that the Council 
of Nicea had no hesitation in admitting the right of 
the Emperor to control the Church, and Constantine 
claiming to be a sort of Episcopus episcoporum ap 
pointed by God 2 . This conception of the Emperor 
has never been lost by the Eastern Church. 

We have seen that there was a ceremonial in 
pre-Christian times on the accession of an Emperor. 
The Church very naturally transformed this inaugura 
tion ceremony into a Christian rite in much the same 
way as the civil marriage ceremony was made religious 
by the addition to it of the benediction of the Church. 
The accession of an Emperor was by the will of God. 
The Church gave him her solemn benediction at the 
outset of his career. It is the idea of a benediction 
rather than a consecration that the earliest Eastern 
rites, and even the earlier Western rites, seem to con 
template. At the same time the Church by her benedic 
tion proclaimed the new Emperor as the chosen of God, 
thereby affording a certain stability to his throne and 
in some degree offering some assurance of peace to 
Empire and Church. The idea of a consecration 
gradually evolved itself, and rapidly developed when 

1 Tertull., Apol. xxxn.; Ad Kcap. n. 
a Eusebius, Vit. Constant., iv. xxiv. 


the use of an unction was introduced. We have seen 
that there is some uncertainty as to the date of this 
introduction. St Gregory the Great not only speaks 
of the anointing of rulers as a well-known fact, but 
certainly regards it as being in some sort sacramental, 
just as St Augustine had long before asserted that 
the Jewish unction conferred grace on its recipients . 
Photius evidently regarded the Emperor as being in 
some way set apart and solemnly consecrated by 
the inauguration rite. But there still remained the 
practical idea of obtaining general recognition as 
Ernperor by the performance of the ceremony, for 
the Emperors were crowned immediately on their 
accession. This idea is just as manifest in the West 
as in the East. There we see that Pippin in his 
anxiety to obtain a definite recognition and accept 
ance of his dynasty when the Merovingian faineants 
were set aside, was anointed or consecrated on two 
different occasions, by St Boniface, and secondly by 
the Pope himself, who came across the Alps for the 
purpose. In the same way we find Richard I of 
England being crowned a second time on his return 
from his captivity, this second coronation being 
apparently regarded as necessary in view of the fact 
that his brother John had acted at least as king de 
facto. Henry II was crowned no less than three 
times. Henry III was crowned twice. All these 
cases of repeated coronations were intended to pro- 

1 Cf. the statemeut of Aphraates (c. 350) who holds that the 
unction of Saul and David imparted the Holy Spirit. (Demonstr. 
vj. 16.) 


cure the firm establishment of the king upon his 
throne rather than for any other reason. Or again 
a king might be held to have forfeited his throne by 
some grievous crime, as in the case of Lothair II of 
Lotharingia, but on amendment might be confirmed 
upon his throne by a reconsecration, as was Lothair 
by Archbishop Hincmar. 

But in process of time in the two oldest monarchical 
states, England and France, a theory came to be held 
that the consecration of a king was a consecration 
proper, and was to be ranked with the Sacrament of 
Order as conferring character, and that after his con 
secration the king was no longer a layman but at 
least a Mixta Persona. This view, popular though 
it was in England and France, was never accepted 
by authority, and Lyndwood mentions it as being 
taught only secundum quosdam ; while St Thomas 
lays down that only the Sacraments of Baptism, 
Confirmation, and Order confer character, thus ex 
cluding the consecration of a king. On the other 
hand, in the rite of Navarre the unction is spoken of 
as the Sacrament of unction. 

"We find an excellent example of the popular 
belief in the effect of the consecration in the French 
and English rite of the Healing. In France the 
power of the king to heal by his touch was certainly 
generally attributed to the fact that he had been 
anointed. Though this theory was also largely held 
in England, there was also the counter and perhaps 
more general view held, that the power of healing- 
was possessed in virtue of rightful succession from 


the Confessor ; on the other hand the kings of England 
blessed cramp rings by rubbing them in their anointed 
hands, with a prayer for their consecration. 

Three facts may be regarded as contributing 
towards this common belief in England and France 
that the consecration of a king was a sort of ordi 
nation ; the fact that he was anointed as prophets, 
priests and kings were anointed, according to the 
language of the form in most of the orders ; the fact 
that the regal vestments were very like those of a 
bishop ; and the fact that there is considerable 
similarity between the rite of the consecration of 
a king and that of the consecration of a bishop. The 
king was anointed as prophets, priests and kings 
were anointed. Unction was used in the Sacraments 
of Baptism, Confirmation and Order, all of which con 
ferred character. It was difficult to explain what was 
the meaning of the unction of a king. Grosseteste 1 
held that it bestowed grace, the sevenfold gift of the 
Holy Spirit. So far as there was any official doctrine 
on the subject, it seems that it was that the unction 
of a king was a Sacramental, a means by which grace 
might be obtained. The Roman Church seems to 
have always discouraged the theory that it was in 
any way an ordination. The fact that in the East 
the Emperor took part in the procession as a Depu- 
tatus proves very little, and the fact that the Western 
Emperors sometimes read the Epistle at their corona 
tion if anything goes against the theory of ordination, 

1 Roberti Grosseteste episcopi quondam Lincolniensis Epistolae, 
(Bolls Series, 1861), p. 350. 


for if the Emperor was to be regarded as in any way 
in Orders, surely his Orders would have ranked 
above the sub-diaconate. 

We have already seen that the royal and sacerdotal 
vestments are closely related in their origin, and many 
of them more or less identical both in form and name, 
and therefore it is not surprising that men should 
have thought that this must mean that the king was 
in some way a minister of the Church. For example, 
a French order describes the Tunic, Dalmatic, and 
Pallium (Royal Mantle) of a king as celuy qui 
repre"sente le soubsdiacre, celuy qui repre"sente le 
diacre, et le manteau royal repre"sentant la chasuble. 
Again an English king is described by a lay witness 
as being arrayed at the time of his coronation like a 
bishop vested for Mass. 

There is certainly a general similarity between 
the rite of the consecration of a bishop, and the rite 
of the consecration of a king. It was undoubtedly 
this similarity that was the chief ground for the 
doctrine that an anointed king was a mixta persona, 
a view that is still maintained by some. The 
closeness of the structure of the two rites is seen 
at a glance. 

Consecration of a bishop. Consecration of a king. 

Oath of canonical Oath to maintain Church 

obedience. and justice. 

Litany. Litany. 
Laying on of hands. 

Veni Creator. Veni Creator. 

Collect. Collects. 

W. C. K. 13 


Preface and Consecration Preface and Consecration 

prayer. prayer. 

Anointing. Anointing. 

Delivery of Crozier, Ring, Delivery of Sword, Pallium, 

Mitre, and Gospel- Crown, Ring, Sceptre 

book. and Rod. 

Mass. Mass. 

It will be seen that the similarity in the structure 
of the rites is striking, and the closeness in the forms 
of the two rites is equally noticeable. 

The bishop, after the consecration prayer, is 
anointed on the head with chrism. The king, after 
the consecration prayer, is anointed on head, breast, 
etc., with chrism according to the English and French 
rites, with oil according to the Roman use. The 
Roman form used at the anointing of a bishop 
is Ungatur et consecretur caput tuum caelesti bene- 
dictione, ordine pontificali, in nomine Patris et Filii 
et Spiritus Sancti ; a Roman form at the anointing 
of a king runs Ungo te in regem de oleo sanctificato 
in nomine, etc. The hands of a bishop are anointed 
with the form Ungantur manus istae de oleo sancti 
ficato et chrismate sanctificationis sicut unxit Samuel 
David Regem et Prophetam, ita ungantur et conse- 
crentur ; in the case of a king the general form runs 
Ungantur manus istae de oleo sanctificato unde uncti 
fuerunt reges et prophetae et sicut unxit David in 
regem, etc. The Ring is delivered to a bishop with 
the words Accipe anulum discretionis et honoris fidei 
signum, etc. ; to a king with the words Accipe regiae 
dignitatis anulum et per hunc in te catholicae fidei 


cognosce signaculum, etc. The Pastoral staff is de 
livered to a bishop with the words Accipe baculum 
regiminis signum, ut imbecilles consolides, titubantes 
confirmes, pravos corrigas, rectos dirigas, etc. ; com 
pare with this the form with which the Verge or Rod 
is delivered to the king, Accipe virgam virtutis atque 
aequitatis, qua intelligas mulcere pios et terrere re- 
probos, etc. Finally the bishop is seated in capite 
sedium episcoporum and the king is enthroned. 

These instances are sufficient to shew unmis 
takably that one rite influenced the other. But the 
stage at which the similarity is so noticeable is a late 
stage in the history of both rites, and at an earlier 
date when both were more simple, much of the later 
parallelism is not to be found. In the process of the 
great liturgical developements of the middle ages 
there was naturally an assimilation in the case of 
the consecration of persons, and there seems to have 
been a good deal of experimenting in the case of the 
rite of the consecration of a king, many pontificals 
containing orders with various peculiarities, which 
certainly were never used. But on the other hand 
there is also to be noticed a careful differentiation 
between the two rites, and this especially in the 
Roman orders. The Roman rite was never elaborate 
and in process of time tended to a greater simplicity. 
Thus the investiture of a king with the Ring does 
not appear in it except for a very short time, and 
then from outside sources ; in the same rite the 
unctions are only two in number, and there is a 
difference in the parts anointed in the case of a king, 



he being anointed only between the shoulders and 
on the wrist. If, as is most likely, kings in the 
West were anointed on the head, this differentiation 
between the anointing of a bishop and a king seems 
deliberate on the part of the Roman Church. More 
over, while it is true that in England and France 
chrism was used for the unction of a king as for 
a bishop, in the Roman rite chrism was never so 
used in the case of a king, but only the oleum 

Officially then the Church denied the name of 
Sacrament to the royal consecration, allowing it the 
rank of a Sacramental only. In practice the repe 
tition of the rite which so often occurred, and in the 
case of the Roman Emperor was normally performed 
three times, proves sufficiently that it was not an 
ordination conferring character. 

Historically considered the rite proves itself to 
be in origin a special benediction elaborated and de 
veloped almost out of recognition as such. A careful 
examination of the construction of the rite shews 
that in it there are three well marked divisions. 

1. The election of the king. 

2. The oath taken by the king to rule in accord 
ance with law and justice. 

3. The benediction superadded to the covenant 
so made between king and people. 

Of the election the Recognition is the surviving 
trace. It may be noted that the idea of the election 
of the king is retained till quite late in the develope- 
ment of the rite. Until the time of the fourth English 


recension, these words still appeared, Quern in hums 
regni regem pariter eligimus. In the fourth English 
recension eligimus was changed to consecramus, but in 
the French rite this change was never made and the 
word eligimus was used without alteration. 

The oath was at first quite simple, short, and 
direct. It developed into an interrogatory form, the 
king swearing in answer to questions put to him by 
the consecrating prelate. In England and France 
the oath covered the king s duties to Church and 
State and People, but elsewhere it frequently included 
a promise of subjection to the See of Rome. 

The benediction of the Church was subjected to the 
greatest developement. An unction was introduced, 
and the porrection of the royal ornaments, Sword, 
Crown, Ring, Sceptres, and Verge, which naturally lent 
themselves to spectacular effect, tended to become 
more and more elaborate. Thus in process of time 
each ornament was delivered with its own form and 
prayer. Added to this, the conflation of prayers, 
originally alternative, has increased this portion of 
the rite until it comprises the greater part of the 
whole ceremonial. It appealed to sentiment, and 
the Church was always ready to make use of senti 

If it is desired to make a comparison between this 
and any other rite of the Church, it is the marriage 
rite which is really the closest to it. So King 
Charles I felt, of whom we are told that His Majesty 
on that day was cloathed in white contrary to the 
custom of his predecessors who were on that day clad 


in purple. And this he did... at his own choice only, 
to declare that Virgin Purity with which he came to 
be espoused unto his Kingdom 1 . In marriage a 
covenant is made with vows between the two con 
tracting parties. To the covenant so made the 
Church adds her benediction. In the giving of her 
benediction she makes use of emblems, a Crown 
and Ring, investing the contracting parties with 
insignia, as it were, which are highly significant 
of the covenant betwixt them made. Of these 
the nuptial Crown, still used throughout Eastern 
Christendom, has long been dispensed with in the 
West, the Ring alone remaining. 

The rite of the coronation of a queen consort 
is not really in the same category with the conse 
cration of a king. It is merely complimentary. As 
we have seen it had no place in the earliest English 
order, nor yet in the corresponding rite of Milan, 
and perhaps the same is true of the oldest Prankish 
forms. The second English recension gives a form 
for the coronation of the queen with the preliminary 
explanation that the office is performed out of con 
sideration for her honourable position as consort of 
the king. This is borne out by the earlier forms at 
her unction, Let the anointing with this oil increase 
thine honour. 

In the earlier Prankish orders there is a noticeable 
similarity to the nuptial rite, and the general idea 
underlying the benediction of the queen is that she 

1 Heylin, Cyprianus Anglicus, p. 1-15. 1668. 


may be worthy of her high dignity and bear a numerous 
royal progeny. This last idea has in recent times, 
temporarily at least, disappeared. The comparative 
unimportance of the coronation of the queen consort 
is shewn by the fact that many were not crowned at 
all, among others being Henrietta Maria, Catherine 
of Braganza, and Mary of Modena. It is true that 
these three belonged to the Roman communion, 
but notwithstanding this same circumstance, it was 
necessary for the king regnant James II to submit to 
the rite. 

In France the coronation of the queen, since the 
time of Marie de Me dicis, was dispensed with 
altogether, until Josephine was crowned as Empress 
with the Emperor Napoleon. 


[See also Table of Contents ] 

Abyssinian Bite 30, 180 
Aidan, King, Ordination of 

36, 65 n. 2 
Akakia 185 
Alba camisia 183 
Alfred, King 59 f., 171 
Anastasius I, Emperor 12 f. 
Anglo-Saxon Coronations 58ff. 
Antidoron 27, 29 
Antiminsion 17 
Aphraates, quoted 190 n. 
Armills 183, 187 
Aurelian, Emperor 10 
dvarfiXare 27 

Baldwin I 27, 48 

Benedictio super arma regis 

Berengar of Friuli 170 

Bishop, consecration of, com 
pared with that of a king 
193 f. 

Boniface, St 34, 167, 180 

Bracelets 4 n. 

Burgred, King, charter of 
59 n. 1, 63 

Buskins 181 ff. 

a<n\ei/j, used of Anglo-Saxon 
kings 62 

Camelaucus 159 f. 
Camisa 130, 184 

Charlemagne 32 ff., 37 ff., 168; 

unction of 40 f., 169 
Charles I of England 197 
Charles V, Emperor 55, 


Charles V of France 102 
Chlamys 13, 19, 23, 173, 182; 

prayer over 19, 22, 179 
Chrism 194 ; English 73, 80 f. ; 

French 103 
Codinus Curopalates, quoted 


Colobium sindonis 182 
Confessio of St Peter, Em 
peror anointed before 45, 48 
Constantia, Empress 49 
Constantine VI 17 
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, 

quoted 11, 12, 15, 18, 21, 

Coronation, repetition of, in 

case of certain kings 190 
XeipoOecria 66 n., 179 
XITWV 181 

Dalmatic 183 ff., 187 

Deputatus 26 

Diadem 10, 11, 16; diadema 

25, 182 

Dibetesion 12, 16, 18, 25, 181 
Donative 9, 15 
16, 25 n. 



Eardwulf, King 59 
Ecgferth, King 56 n., 58 
Ectene or Litany 22 
Edgar, King 63, 172 
Egbert, Pontifical of 57 f., 60 
Einhard, quoted 39 
Epistle, read by Emperor at 
coronation 192 

Frankish kings, coronation 
of 91 

Galeus 62, 185. (See also 

Goar, Euchologion, quoted 

18, 22 
Gregory I, Pope, on unction 

of kings 178 ; Apostle of 

the English 98 
Grosseteste, quoted 192 

Hazael, 4 

Healing, by kings 191 

Helmet 133, 136 

Henry VI, Emperor 49 

Henry VII, Emperor 52, 116 

Heylin, quoted 77 n., 197 f. 

James II 85 ff. 

Jehoiada 4 

Julian, Bishop of Toledo, 

quoted 33, 128 
Julian, Emperor 10 
Justin II, Emperor 16 

Key, delivered to king 154 
Knights, created at corona 
tion 125 

Laud, Abp 77 f., 79 f. 

Laudes 19, 38 n. 2, 42 f., 47, 
51, 53, 125 n., 160, 161, 
163, 164 

Laying on of hands, in coro 
nation 36, 65 n. 2 

Leo I, Emperor 10 f. 
Leo II, Emperor 15 
Liber Kegalis 58, 69 
Litany, in English rite 67 
Lores. (SeeDiadema.Pallium) 
Louis II, King 45 
Louis the Pious 41 
Lyndwood, quoted 191 

Manasses, Constantino, quoted 


Mandyas 26 
Maniakis 11 
Marriage rite, compared with 

that of coronation 197 
Mary, St, in Turri, Emperor 

canon of 54 
Maurice, St, altar of, Emperor 

anointed before 47, 48, 50, 


Mixta Persona 191 
Modiolon 15 

Napoleon 106 

Oath, at coronation 197; 
English63, 67,70,73, 78 f., 
82; French 96, 99, 100, 
102, 106 ; Imperial 45, 46, 
49, 52; Roman 109, 111; 
Spanish 33, 134, 165 

Obligatory oath of the people 
81, 141 

Orb 185 

Pall (Pallium) 183, 187 ; 

papal 160, 161 
Pertinax, Emperor 8 
Photius, quoted 179 
Pippin 34, 166 ff., 190 
Presanctified, liturgy of 24 
Prynne 77 n. 
v 29 

Queen, coronation of 198 f. ; 
Anglo-Saxon 62, 95, 198 



Recognition 73, 127, 140, 196 
Regnum. (See Tiara) 
Reichsapfel 143, 185 
Ring, investiture with 51, 64, 
174, 195 

Sacrament or Sacramental 

191, 196 
Sagion 18 

Sakkos 25, 26, 181, 184 
Sancroft, Abp 81, 84 
Sapor 5 
Saul 3 

Shield and Spear 5, 11, 133 
Shield, elevation on 10, 13, 

16, 25, 135, 136 
Spurs 185 

Stemma, 19, 63, 185 
Subdeacon, Emperor acts as 

53, 54 

Tacitus, Emperor 7 f. 
Tel-el-Amarna 2 
Theophanes, quoted 11, 12, 

17, 40 

Tiara (papal) 160, 163 

Torque 10, 13, 16 
Tunica talaris 183, 184 
Tunicle. (See Dalmatic) 
Tzitzakion 18 
Tovfila 16 

Unction, in Abyssinia 30 f., 
180 ; at Constantinople 
177 f . ; of Czar of Russia 
29 ; among the Franks 34 f. , 
166 f., 180 ; in Imperial 
rite 40, 45, 47, 50, 52 ; in 
Spain 33 f., 165 f., 180. 
(See also Charlemagne, 
Unction of) 

Verge 185 

Vestments, coronation 181 ff. ; 
derivation of 186 ; resem 
blance to sacerdotal 193 

Wamba, King 33 f., 128 
Widukmd 120 

fruvi], favdpiov 16 


(Pap) means a Papal Form; the other letters refer to the 
Protestant rites : (B) Bohemian, (D) Danish, (N) Nor 
wegian, (P) Prussian, (S) Scottish, (Sw) Swedish. The 
number of the page in brackets in the case of a Latin 
form gives the reference to the English version; and the 
Latin in brackets after an English form is the original 
of the form. 

A vobis perdonari 70, 74, 92, 
95, 99, 116 

Accingere gladio tuo 47, 53, 

Accipe anulum signaculum s. 
Trinitatis 66, 117 ; anulum 
vid. signaculum s. fidei 51, 
64, (76), 96, 104, 105; ar- 
millas sinceritatis 68, (75) ; 
coronam a domino deo 44, 
45, 114; coronam gloriae 
66, (76), 117, 133; coronam 
regalis excellentiae 51 ; 
(igitur) coronam regni 101, 
107, 110, 115, 117, 124, 
132; inquam coronam 104; 
dignitatis pomum 132 ; (en- 
sem) gladium (imperialem) 
ad vindictam 47, 52, 103, 
104, 117, 131 ; gladium per 
manus (nostras) episcopo- 
rum 42, 68, (75), 103, 110, 
115, 118, 123; gladium rex 

electe (B), 143; hunc gla 
dium cum dei benedictione 

51, 64, 120 ; nunc vestem 
summi honoris 65 n. 1 ; 
pallium 68, (75); pallium 
plenitudinem (Pap) 161 ; 
pomum aureum 117 ; regiae 
dignitatis anulum 68, (75), 
110, 115, 123, 194; scep- 
trum regiae potestatis 51, 
64,68, (75), 93, 117; scep- 
trum regni virgam 47 ; 
signum gloriae 45, 47, 51, 

52, 117, 132 ; virgam vir- 
tutis 54, 65, (75), 101, 105, 
110, 115, 124, 132, 133, 195 

Actiones nostras 130 

Adesto domine supplicatio- 
nibus 98, 100, 105 

Almighty and Everlasting 
God, Creator of all things 
(Omn. semp. Deus creator 
omnium) 74, 80, 82 



(0) Almighty and Everlasting 

God, we beseech thee (Omn. 

semp. Deus affluentem) 76, 

Almighty Everlasting God, 

pour out (Sw) 154 
Almighty God give thee 

(Omu. Deus det tibi) 76 
And the same good Lord 83, 

Be strong (Confortare) 75, 83, 

Be this head anointed (Un- 

guanturcaput istud, etc.) 82 
Behold <God, our defender 

Benedic domine et sanctifica 

auulum 72, (75) ; fortitudi- 

nem 61, 65, 72, (76), 97; 

hunc principem 53, 61, 103 ; 

hunc regem 71, (74), 101, 

110, 123, 131, 132 
Benedicat tibi deus (75), 104, 

Bless Lord and sanctify 

(Benedic deus) 75 ; the vir 
tuous carriage (Benedic dne 

fortitudinem) 76 
Bless we beseech thee, 

Lord, these thy gifts (Mu- 

nera dne quaes. oblata) 

77, 87 

Blessed art thou, Lord, 85 
By the eternal almighty God 

(S) 141 
By whom kings reign and 

princes rule 88 

Clerum ac populum 92, 104, 

Come thou Holy Spirit, come 

(S) 154 
Confortare et esto vir 72, 

(75), 103 
Coronet te deus (i) 47, 64, 

68, (75), 92, 93 

Coronet te deus (ii) 92, 104, 


Coronet te dominus gloria 95 
Creator omnium Imperator 
(see Omn. semp. Deus 
creator ac gubernator) 

Desiderium animae 111, 124, 

Det tibi dominus velle et 
posse 92 

Deum time 68 

Deus caelestium terrestrium- 
que 72, (75), 98, 109, 112, 
116, 122, 131 

Deus cuius est omnis potestas 
(queen) 66, 69, (76), 105; 
dei filius 47, 50, 52, 64, 68, 
71, (74), 96, 99, 101, 103, 
107,112,115,117, 118,123, 
127, 132 ; electorum forti 
tude 61, 64, 71, (74), (89), 
94, 96, 103, 115 ; honorum 
(bonorum) cunctorum 113, 
133 ; humilium visitator 
70, 73, (82) ; ineffabilis 
auctor 67, 71, (74), 123; 
inenarrabilis auctor 45, 46, 
50, 94, 99, 101, 103, 108, 
110, 112, 127; in cuius 
manu 45, 46, 49, 118, 131 ; 
pater aeternae gloriae 44, 
45, 53, 103, 105, 107, 113, 
114, 132, 133; perpetuitatis 
auctor 61, 64, 68, (75), 104, 
115, 117 

Deus qui, ad defendendum 
133 ; adesse (Pap) 162 ; 
apostolum tuurn (Pap) 162 ; 
corda fidelium 106, 150 ; es 
iustorum gloria 47, 68, 71, 
(74), 99, 101, 110, 123, 132 ; 
populis tuis, 61, 64, 71, (74), 
91, 92, 103, 116; provi- 
dentia tua 64, 96, 101, 103, 
117 ; scis humanum genus 



98,109,122,131; solus babes 
immortalitatem 50, 53, 69, 
(76), 105, 111, 116, 117, 
132 ; victrices Moysi 101, 
104, 108, 112, 127 

Deus regnorum omnium 44, 
51, 52, 60, 112, 118, 127; 
rex regum 71, (74) ; ttiorum 
corona 68, (75), (76) 

Dilexisti iustitiani 116, 118 

(Domine) Deus omn. cuius est 
omnis potestas (king) 45, 
47, 50, 51, 52, 64, 72, (75), 
93, 96, 104, 117, 118, 132 

Domnus Leo papa (Pap) 160 

Ecce mitto angelum 49, 109, 


Elegit te domiuus 160 
Emitte spiritum 106 
Emitte spiritum (D) 150 
Exaudi domine preces nostras 

42, 71, (75), 114 

Fear God (P) 146 
Firmetur manus 63, 67, 70, 
73, (b5), 104, 108, 112, 127 

Gentem Francorum inclitam 


Gloria et honore coronet 94 
God crown thee (coronet te 

deus) 75, 77, 83, 87, 89 
God the Almighty (Sw) 155 
God the exalter of the humble 

(Deus visitator humilium) 

73, 82, 86 (see O God which 

God the Son of God (Deus 

dei filius) 74, 80, 82, 86 
God the strength of thy 

chosen (Deus electorum 

fortitude) 74, 77 
God the unspeakable author 

(Deus ineffabilis) 74, 77 
God to whom belongeth all 

power (Dne Deus cuius est 
omnis potestas) 76 

God which art the glory (Deus 
qui es iustorum gloria) 74 

(0) God which providest 
(Deus qui populis tuis) 74, 
82, 86, 88 

-(0) God which only hast im 
mortality (Deus qui solus 
habes immortalitatem) 76 

Haec domiue salutaiis 133 
Haec tria populo Christiano 

63 n., 96, 99, 102 
Hear our prayers (exaudi 

quaesumus) 75, 87 

I was glad 85 

Indiebus eiusoriatur 64, (83), 

96, 103, 115, 116 
In nomiue Christi promitto 

45, 67 
In nomine Patris 65, 69, (76), 

105, 117 
In the name of the Father 

(In nomine Patris) 76 
In thy days (In diebus eius) 

Ita retine 124. (See Sta et 


Let my prayer come 88 
Let these hands be anointed 

(Unguantur manus istae) 

Let thy hand be strengthened 

(Firmetur manus) 85 
Let your royal Majesty (P) 

145 ; (queen, P) 145 
Look down Almighty God 

(Prospice omnipotens) 74 

Munera, Domine, quaesumus 
oblata 77 

Almighty and Everlasting 



God, the fountain (Omn. 
semp. Deus fons et origo) 
76, 84; Creator of all 
things (Omn. semp. Deus, 
creator omnium) 74, 80, 82 

Almighty God, we beseech 
thee that this thy servant 
(Quaesumus omn. Deus ut 
famulus) 76 

God of eternity (O Eternal 
God, Deus perpetuitatis) 
75, 77, 83 ; the Creator 
(Deus caelestium) 75, 80 ; 
the crown of the faithful 
(Deus tuorum) 75, 76, 83, 
87, 89 ; the King of kings 
(Deus rex regum) 74, 80; 
to whom belongeth (Deus 
cuius est oinnis potestas) 

75, 83 ; which visitest 
(Deus visitator humilium) 
73 (see also God the ex- 
alter of the humble) ; who 
dwellest (Deus visitator 
humilium) 82, 86, 88 ; who 
providest 82, 86, 88 

Lord Holy Father who by 
anointing 89 (see God the 
strength) ; our God King of 
kings 22, 28 ; the fountain 
of all good things (Omnium 
domine fons bonorum) 75, 

76, 84 ; the giver of all 
perfection 90 ; thou that 
governest (Benedic domine) 
74, 80 

Officio nostrae indignitatis 

53, 69, 72, (76), 111, 113, 

117, 133 
Omn. aeterne deus creator 

omnium (see Omn. semp. 

Deus creator ac gubernator ) ; 

fons et origo 50, 53, 69, 

(76), 105, 111, 116, 117, 132 
Omnipotens det tibi deus de 

rore 61, 65, 72, (76), 97 

Omnipotens Deus cuncti ho 
noris 65 n. 1 

Omnipotens semp. Deus 
affluentem spiritum 65, 69, 
(76), 105, 117 ; caelestium 
terrestriumque (see Deus 
caelestium) ; creator ac gu 
bernator 64, 67, 71, (74), 

92, 96, 99, 101, 103, 106, 
110, 112, 115, 116, 123, 126, 
131 ; hancfamulam 105, 133 

Omnipotens semp. Deus qui 
famulum 109, 122, 131; 
Hazael 107, 112, 132; te 
populi sui 133 

Omnium domine fons bo 
norum 51, 65, 66, 68, 69, 

93, 104, 105, 117 

Pater sancte sic transit 163 
Petre amas me 50 
Praetende quaesumus domiue 

Praise the Lord Jerusalem 

Profiteer coram deo 101, 106, 

112, 124, 126, 131 
Promitto (et perdono) vobis 

92, 96 

Prosperity to the king (P) 146 
Prospice omn. Deus serenis 

obtutibus 42, 53, 68, 71, 

(74), 99, 103, 110, 114, 123, 


Quaesumus omn. deus ut 

famulus 76 
Quatenus divinis monitis 104, 


Receive the armill (Accipe 
armillas) 75 ; the crown of 
glory (Accipe coronam glo- 
riae) 76, 84; the ring of 
kinglydignity (Accipe regiae 
dignitatis anulum) 75 ; the 



rod (Accipe virgam) 75; 
the sceptre (Accipe scep- 
trum) 75 ; this kingly sword 
(Accipe gladium) 75, 87; 
this pall (Accipe pallium) 
75 ; this ring (Accipe anu- 
lum) 76 

Rectitude regis est noviter 
ordinati 62, 97, 115, 117 

Remember him of whom 87 

Sanctus 88 

Seeing you are by our ministry 

(Officio indigriitatis) 76, 84 
Si leges et consuetudines 70 
Si tali principi 67, 99 
Sir, receive this kingly sword 

(S) 141 
Sir, receive this sceptre (S) 


Spiritum sauctificationis 94 
Spiritus Sci gratia humilitatis 

51, 53, 69, 105, 111, 117, 

123, 132, 133 
Sta et retine 65, 68, (75), 97, 

100, 101, 107, 111, 112, 

127, 132 

Stand and hold fast 75, 87 
Stand and hold fast (S) 141 
Supplicationibus omn. deus 

(Pap) 162 

Te deum 29, 63, 72, 75, 83, 
125, 127, 133, 135, 144, 146, 
148, 150, 157 

Te invocamus 61, 64, 71, (74), 
94, 96, 103, 115, 116 

The almighty everlasting God 
(Sw) 154 

The King shall rejoice (Deus 
in virtute) 75, 83, 88 

The Lord bless thee (Bene- 
dicat tibi) 75, 83 ; give you 
a fruitful country 90; give 
thee of the dew (Omn. deus 
det tibi) 83 ; preserve thy 
life 83 

Thus saith the Lord 87 

To put you in mind 87 

To thee alone 23 

Tu es Petrus 108 

Ungo te in regem 110, 123, 

Unguantur caput istud, pec- 

tus 68 ; maims istae, 68, 

71, (74), 99, 104, 110, 123, 

Unxerunt Salamonem 61, 71, 

(74), 96, 99, 103, 107, 116 

Veni Creator 71, 74, 82, 86, 
102, 106, 142, 145, 147 

Veni Sancte Spiritus 147, 
150, 154 

Vis sanctam fidem 109, 131 

Vis sanctissimo in Christo 
patri 122 

We beseech thee, Lord 

(Te invocamus) 74, 82 
We swear 81 

Zadok the priest 74, 82, 86 




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